The Hitchhikers Guide to Mental-Contrasting: Exploring the Intersection of Mindfulness & Mental Time Travel
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractBeneficial correlates of mindfulness as a trait and intervention are widely researched. However, this phenomenon as a quality of consciousness remains ambiguous, especially in regards to its relationship with time. Mindfulness emphasizes intentionality; has been proposed to represent healthy time perspectivity; and is correlated with goal conceptualization, pursuit, and achievement. As a preliminary measure in closing this research disparity, probing mindfulness and its relationship with the goal conceptualization strategy mental-contrasting emerged as an intuitive addition to the body of research. This strategy professes three tenets: goal inception, obstacle generation, and solution cultivation. As present-minded action is accentuated, mindfulness is anticipated to be compatible with this model. The Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS) assessed subjects (n=78) instructed with a Think Aloud protocol during which they vocalized organically-emerging thoughts for ten-minute recorded intervals. A qualitative scoring analysis was applied so as to discern the proportion of mental-contrasting. Linear regression models demonstrated a positive correlation (p <0.001, r-value: 509) between trait mindfulness and the utilization of the full three tenets of mental-contrasting. Fantasizing possessed an inverse relationship with trait mindfulness (p-value: 0.012, r-value: -0.289), while failing to generate solutions to goal obstacles was also negatively correlated with trait mindfulness (p <0.001, r-value: -0.467). Mindfulness as an intervention may be calibrated to encompass such adaptive temporal implementation.