Self-Concept Development in School-Aged Children with Congenital Upper Limb Differences: A Mixed Methods Study
AuthorMartens, Sally Ann
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction, presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
EmbargoRelease after 02/02/2023
AbstractPurpose: The purpose of this mixed methods study was to explore self-concept development in school-aged children with congenital upper limb differences. Background: Self-concept development has been shown to be a central point of reference for all further psychosocial development. Having a negative self-concept has a direct relationship on a child’s personality and over the course of their lifespan can influence academic and career success, peer interactions and relationships, generativity and life satisfaction and meaning. Research Design: A convergent mixed methods design. Methods: A purposive sample of nine children with congenital upper limb differences completed a 58-question survey. All participants then proceeded to collect photos and provide written descriptions each day over the course of one week, for a total of 63 photographs and 63 written descriptions. Data was merged for mixed methods integration and analysis to provide a rich description of self-concept development in school-aged children with congenital upper limb differences. Results: The mean self-concept was 51.22 (±10.43). Mean domain scores were behavioral adjustment 52 (±8.19), freedom from anxiety 48.56 (±10.42), happiness and satisfaction 49.44 (±10.73), intellectual and school status 54.78 (±10.31), and social acceptance 49.89(±8.64). Five prominent themes arose from integrated results: emotions, sense of accomplishments, positive view of oneself and one’s physical body, hobbies, and a sense of connection. Children with CULD defined their self-concept through expressions of self-efficacy (20 photographs and written descriptions, self-image (four photographs and written descriptions), and social identity (39 photographs and written descriptions). Concordance and expansion existed within the results. Implications: Results from this study created a more comprehensive description of self-concept, including an expanded understanding of the social identity of school-aged children with congenital upper limb difference. Future research studies are needed to explore the relationships between self-efficacy, self-image, and social identity, to create middle range theories and develop interventions aimed promoting healthy self-concept development. Additional research is needed to explore the long-term psychosocial effects of the changes in children’s social context secondary to growing up during the COVID pandemic.
Degree ProgramGraduate College