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dc.contributor.advisorPace, Thaddeus
dc.contributor.advisorInsel, Kathleen
dc.contributor.authorMontjoy, Jennifer
dc.creatorMontjoy, Jennifer
dc.date.accessioned2022-08-18T22:55:55Z
dc.date.available2022-08-18T22:55:55Z
dc.date.issued2022
dc.identifier.citationMontjoy, Jennifer. (2022). Ketamine-Assisted Psychotherapy: Clinical Outcomes and Self-Transcendence in Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (Doctoral dissertation, University of Arizona, Tucson, USA).
dc.identifier.urihttp://hdl.handle.net/10150/665700
dc.description.abstractPosttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) treatment response is estimated at 40%. Roughly half of individuals with PTSD have co-occurring depression. Repeated racemic ketamine administration has been effective in treatment-resistant depression (TRD); response in chronic PTSD is less understood. A quasi-experimental, retrospective study was conducted to investigate intramuscular (IM) racemic ketamine administration with concurrent psychedelic-assisted psychotherapy (i.e., ketamine-assisted psychotherapy) (KAP) efficacy in chronic PTSD and TRD.Relationships between self-transcendence scale (STS) scores and adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) in those who received KAP were also explored. A convenience sample (N =33; Mage= 43, SD = 15) was recruited from an outpatient psychiatric clinic in southern Arizona. Data were collected between July 15, 2021, through March 10, 2022. As part of their regular clinic care, participants received between 0.3 mg/kg with gradual titration to 1 mg/kg of IM ketamine, for either three or six KAP sessions in the past 12 months. Two-tailed paired t-tests were used to analyze pre- to post-KAP PTSD symptom severity and depression symptom severity, using the PCL-5 and PHQ-9 respectively. Total mean PCL-5 score was 19.16 points lower (SD = 14.91, p < .001) post-KAP with significant improvement (d = 1.28, 95% CI = 0.796, 1.751) in PTSD symptom severity. More of a reduction occurred in PCL-5 score after six sessions (n = 18, M = -21.56, SD = 16.32) compared to three sessions (n = 12, M = -17.75, SD = 11.42). The effect of the number of KAP sessions on PCL-5 score was not statistically significantly for pre- to post-PCL-5 score difference for participants who received three versus six KAP sessions. Post-hoc findings revealed 86% of participants with chronic PTSD were KAP responders (i.e., had a > 10-point reduction in pre- to post-PCL scores). Pre- to post-KAP change in depression symptom severity was statistically significant (d = .976, 95% CI = 0.555, 1.39) with total PHQ-9 mean 8.49 points lower (SE = 1.16) post-KAP PHQ-9. Analyses of the relationship between STS score and PCL-5 and PHQ-9 yielded significant inverse correlations between self-transcendence and post-KAP PTSD symptom severity, r (31) = -.75, p < .001 and between self-transcendence and post-KAP depression symptom severity, r (31) = -.84, p < .001. Non-significant, positive correlations resulted between ACEs and post-KAP depression and between ACEs and post-KAP PTSD symptom severity. These findings provide rationale for further research of IM KAP’s effect on chronic PTSD symptom severity; however, findings should be considered preliminary. More research is needed to investigate optimal psychotherapeutic approaches, treatment settings, and individualized dosages in treating individuals with chronic PTSD and developmental trauma.
dc.language.isoen
dc.publisherThe University of Arizona.
dc.rightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction, presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
dc.rights.urihttp://rightsstatements.org/vocab/InC/1.0/
dc.subjectchronic PSTD
dc.subjectKAP
dc.subjectketamine
dc.subjectKetamine-assisted psychotherapy
dc.subjectpsychedelic-assisted therapy
dc.titleKetamine-Assisted Psychotherapy: Clinical Outcomes and Self-Transcendence in Depression and Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder
dc.typetext
dc.typeElectronic Dissertation
thesis.degree.grantorUniversity of Arizona
thesis.degree.leveldoctoral
dc.contributor.committeememberReed, Pamela
thesis.degree.disciplineGraduate College
thesis.degree.disciplineNursing
thesis.degree.namePh.D.
refterms.dateFOA2022-08-18T22:55:55Z


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