Evidence of Validity and Normative Values of a New Auditory Backward Masking Test
AffiliationDepartment of Speech, Language, and Hearing Sciences, University of Arizona
auditory temporal processing
central auditory processing
central auditory processing disorder
MetadataShow full item record
CitationFilippini, R., Leite Filho, C. A., Barros, G. M. S. B., Musiek, F. E., & Schochat, E. (2022). Evidence of Validity and Normative Values of a New Auditory Backward Masking Test. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 11(17).
JournalJournal of Clinical Medicine
RightsCopyright © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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AbstractThere are still no valid, clinically feasible instruments to assess backward masking (BM), an auditory temporal processing (ATP) phenomenon. The aim of this study was to develop, standardize and present evidence of validity for a behavioral test for BM assessment. Young adults were submitted to a BM test (BMT), where they were asked to identify a 1000 Hz pure tone followed by a narrowband noise with interstimulus intervals of 0 to 400 ms and signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) between −20 and −30 dB. The correct response rate and target sound detection threshold were calculated, and the results compared with those of young adults with abnormal ATP tests and older adults. Diagnostic accuracy analyses were carried out. Young adults with normal ATP obtained an average correct response rate of 89 and 87% for SNR −20 and −30 dB, respectively, with average thresholds between 10 and 15 ms and no difference between the left and right ears. Results were more consistent at SNR −20 dB, and the best diagnostic accuracy was obtained for SNR −20 dB, with good specificity, but low sensitivity. Normative values were obtained for the BMT, which proved to be clinically feasible, with preliminary evidence of validity. © 2022 by the authors.
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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Copyright © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).
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Implicit memory in the auditory modality: The search for an auditory word form systemSchacter, Daniel L.; Church, Barbara Ann, 1966- (The University of Arizona., 1991)Two experiments were conducted to explore implicit memory within the auditory modality. It was hypothesized that there would be significant auditory priming in a masked word discrimination task. It was also hypothesized that subjects who performed an elaborative encoding task would show little or no advantage in the priming test when compared to subjects who performed a structural encoding task, but they would perform significantly better on a recognition test. It was also hypothesized that, with an appropriate encoding task, subjects would show a sensitivity to voice changes in the priming test. The results indicated significant auditory priming, and elaborative encoding had a greater effect on recognition performance than priming. No sensitivity to voice change was found. The findings are interpreted as support for the theory that auditory priming is mediated by a perceptual representation system.
Abnormal Anatomy of the Auditory Cortex in Schizophrenic Brains with Auditory HallucinationsMusiek, Frank; Bushor, Jillian; Velenovsky, David; Norrix, Linda; Ruiz, John (The University of Arizona., 2022)Background: Evolving research in the psychiatric literature has suggested that the auditory cortex region is smaller in people with schizophrenia who experience auditory hallucinations than in normal control individuals. These findings are not without controversy. While there has been significant research considering volumetric variance in pathologic brains with AH, there is a paucity of data considering the influence of morphology and surface area of primary auditory structures. Purpose: The purpose of this set of studies was to evaluate and compare the following variables in schizophrenic and control brains, both between groups and between hemispheres within groups: surface area of Heschl’s gyrus (HG) and planum temporale (PT), length of the Sylvian fissure (SF), length of the posterior extending ramus of the SF, and the morphological variants of HG, PT, and the posterior ramus. Evidence of morphologic variance or surface area differences in populations that are prone to experiencing auditory hallucinations may provide new or additional insight into the role of these neuroanatomical structures in central auditory processing during auditory hallucinations. Hypothesis: Based on the previous literature we had several hypotheses: (1) in separate structure analyses with regards to surface area, there will be reduced asymmetry for primary auditory structures (HG & PT) in schizophrenic brains with hallucinations compared to controls; (2) there will be reduced typical asymmetry in Sylvian fissure (SF) length for schizophrenic brains with hallucinations compared to controls; and (3) there will be consistent patterns of morphologic differences in at least one category of Heschl’s gyrus, planum temporale, or posterior ramus variants between schizophrenic brains with hallucinations and control brains. Methods: Imaging analysis was conducted using BrainVISA Anatomist software and MRIcron software to assess 51 control brains (102 hemispheres) from the Open Access Series of Imaging Studies (OASIS) repository and 51 schizophrenic brains (102 hemispheres) obtained from the NUSDAST (Northwestern University Schizophrenia Data and Software Tools) database. These neuroimaging softwares were used to quantify surface area of HG and PT, morphology of HG and PT, length of SF, and angle of the posterior extending ramus of SF. Results: This study found a lack of typical asymmetry between right and left HG in schizophrenic brains, and a significantly larger HG in the right hemisphere of controls compared to schizophrenics. There was also reduced asymmetry of the SF length in schizophrenics compared to controls. No significant findings were established for either PT surface area or morphological classifications of HG, PT, or posterior ramus. Key Words: Auditory Hallucinations, auditory cortex, anatomy, Heschl’s gyrus, planum temporale, superior temporal gyrus, Sylvian fissure, posterior ramus, ascending ramus, schizophrenia Abbreviations: Auditory Hallucinations (AH), central auditory nervous system (CANS), Heschl’s gyrus (HG), planum temporale (PT), planum polare (PP), primary auditory cortex (A1), Sylvian fissure (SF), schizophrenia (SZ), superior temporal plane (STP), supramarginal gyrus (SMG), region of interest (ROI)
Abnormal Anatomy of the Auditory Cortex in Schizophrenic Brains with Auditory Hallucinations: A Systematic ReviewMusiek, Frank; Schefer, Madelyn; Velenovsky, David; Norrix, Linda; Ruiz, John (The University of Arizona., 2022)Background: Due to the high prevalence of auditory hallucinations in schizophrenic individuals (60-80%; Lim et al., 2016), this review will focus on evidence of neuroanatomical abnormalities found in key auditory structures of this clinical population. Identifying atypical anatomy of these areas can inform our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the experience of auditory hallucinations as well as potential deficits in central auditory processing, providing a rationale for the involvement of audiologists in diagnosis and treatment of auditory hallucinations. Purpose: The goal of this review is to describe the auditory neuroanatomical differences in schizophrenic individuals who experience auditory hallucinations compared to normal individuals who do not. Further, it will also explore how these differences in neuroanatomy may be related to central auditory processing dysfunction and auditory hallucinations. Methods: A review of existing literature published from 1960-2020 was conducted to summarize and compare neuroanatomical abnormalities of key auditory structures in schizophrenic brains. Relevant studies published between the years of 1960 and 2020 were identified using the following online databases: Google Scholar, PubMed, PSYCnet, and Mendeley, as well as books, chapters, and bibliographies. For each of the listed databases, search terms included “schizophrenia” AND “auditory hallucinations” AND “auditory cortex” AND “anatomy” AND “Sylvian fissure” OR “superior temporal gyrus” OR “Heschl’s gyrus” OR “planum temporale” OR “(central) auditory processing dysfunction” OR “dichotic listening”. Results: Findings from previous anatomical studies are in strong agreement, having identified structural abnormalities of Heschl’s gyrus, planum temporale, and the Sylvian fissure in schizophrenic brains, suggesting that these auditory structures potentially play a role in the experience of auditory hallucinations. Conclusion/Discussion: This review summarizes and compares available evidence of neuroanatomical abnormalities in the auditory cortex of individuals with schizophrenia who experience auditory hallucinations. Anatomical studies investigating auditory structures in schizophrenic brains indicate abnormalities of Heschl’s gyrus, planum temporale, and the Sylvian fissure, particularly a reduction in hemispheric asymmetries. These anatomical deviations have implications for functional auditory processing. Evidence of the involvement of these key auditory structures provides rationale for audiologists to collaborate with psychiatrists in the diagnosis and treatment of auditory hallucinations. This review also suggests the need for future research to investigate potential correlations between neuroanatomical variances in schizophrenic brains and audiological findings. Key Words: Auditory Hallucinations, schizophrenia, auditory cortex, structure, anatomy, superior temporal gyrus, Heschl’s gyrus, planum temporale, Sylvian fissure, central auditory processing, dichotic listening Abbreviations: Auditory hallucinations (AH), auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH), central auditory nervous system (CANS), inner speech model (ISM), corpus callosum (CC), superior temporal gyrus (STG), Heschl’s gyrus (HG), planum temporale (PT), gray matter (GM), gray matter volume (GMV), white matter (WM), white matter volume (WMV), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), temporo-parietal junction (TPJ), right ear advantage (REA)