HYPERTENSION TREATMENT: AN OVERVIEW OF PHARMACOLOGICAL, NUTRITIONAL AND EMERGING INTERVENTIONAL THERAPIES
AuthorLORETO, LAUREN MELISSA
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PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractHypertension is the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease and is commonly associated with the development of complications like myocardial infarction, stroke, and heart failure. This disease is often referred to as the “silent killer” because it tends to go undetected until only after an individual has started to present symptoms associated with heart disease and irreversible damage to the heart and vessels that has occurred. Hypertension is clinically defined as systolic over 130 mmHg and diastolic over 80 mmHg, and it is diagnosed after two or more high blood pressure readings on separate occasions. Despite its easy diagnosis, the incidence of hypertension and its associated cardiac complications is still high and increasing among the American population. Moreover, hypertension remains uncontrolled in nearly half of the patient population, even with the addition of traditional pharmacological and lifestyle interventions. This literature review will provide an overview of hypertension etiology, as well as outline the leading preventative and treatment modalities offered in the clinic today. It will primarily focus on: (1) Medications like ACE inhibitors, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, diuretics and angiotensin receptor blockers; (2) Nutrition therapies like the DASH diet; and (3) emerging nonpharmacological therapies like renal denervation or baroreceptor stimulation. Finally, each treatment modality will be compared and discussed, as well as detailing any known interaction of overlapping therapies.