Identification of a Novel Solinvivirus with Nuclear Localization Associated with Mass Mortalities in Cultured Whiteleg Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei)
AffiliationAquaculture Pathology Laboratory, School of Animal Comparative Biomedical Sciences, University of Arizona
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CitationCruz-Flores, R., Andrade, T. P. D., Mai, H. N., Alenton, R. R. R., & Dhar, A. K. (2022). Identification of a Novel Solinvivirus with Nuclear Localization Associated with Mass Mortalities in Cultured Whiteleg Shrimp (Penaeus vannamei). Viruses, 14(10).
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AbstractThe emergence and spread of disease-causing viruses in shrimp aquaculture is not uncommon. Since 2016, unusual mortalities have been affecting the Brazilian shrimp industry and we have associated these unusual mortalities with a novel variant of infectious myonecrosis virus (IMNV). The transcriptome analysis of these diseased shrimp showed an additional divergent viral sequence that we have assigned to the family Solinviviridae. The novel virus has been tentatively termed Penaeus vannamei solinvivirus (PvSV) (GenBank accession: OP265432). The full-length genome of the PvSV is 10.44 kb (excluding the poly A tail) and codes for a polyprotein of 3326 aa. Five conserved domains coding for a helicase, RdRp, calicivirus coat protein, G-patch and tegument protein were identified. The genome organization of the PvSV is similar to other (Nylan deria fulva virus 1) solinvivirus. A unique feature of this virus that differs from other members of the Solinviviridae is the presence of putative nuclear localization signals. The tissue tropism of this virus is wide, infecting cells of the hepatopancreas, gastrointestinal tract, lymphoid organ and muscle tissue. Another unique feature is that it is the only RNA virus of penaeid shrimp that shows a nuclear localization by in situ hybridization. The PvSV has a wide distribution in Brazil and has been found in the states of Maranhão State (Perizes de Baixo), Piaui State (Mexeriqueira), Ceará State (Camocim, Jaguaruana, Aracati and Alto Santo) and Pará State where it has been detected in coinfections with IMNV. The diagnostic methods developed here (real-time RT-PCR and in situ hybridization) are effective for the detection of the pathogen and should be employed to limit its spread. Furthermore, the identification of the PvSV shows the increasing host range of the relatively new family Solinviviridae. © 2022 by the authors.
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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as Copyright © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).