REDUCING THE CANCER BURDEN: MODIFIABLE LIFESTYLE FACTORS IMPACTING TUMORIGENESIS ON THE MOLECULAR LEVEL
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
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AbstractCancer is the second leading cause of death in the world and the United States for both men and women (Ritchie et al., 2018). Not only is cancer one of the leading causes for death, trends also show a rise in the frequency of cases and early-onset diagnoses (ages <50 years) (Ugai et al., October 2022). Although increased screening influences these heightened numbers, the question still remains of why we see earlier onset cases and what factors play into cancer risk. This paper aims to analyze three modifiable lifestyle factors and discuss the molecular impacts that they have on tumorigenesis. This essay will also provide background on tumorigenesis and explain the six hallmarks of cancer. This information will be followed by diet, obesity, and physical activity impacts on cancer risk, the pathways and molecular players that are involved in the formation of tumors, as well as how these pathways impact a variety of different cancers. This thesis serves to highlight the impact that everyday choices have on an individual’s health and to summarize current research findings on the mechanisms by which lifestyle factors make compounding cellular changes in the body. With new advances in cancer research, future work should further investigate the mechanisms by which lifestyle factors promote or reduce tumorigenesis and how these might impact cancer patient prognosis. Future work should also take into account the newly added hallmarks of cancer and should examine whether these three lifestyle factors influence the new hallmarks in any way.