PERSONALITY DISORDER ELEMENTS THAT POSE A HIGH RISK OF CRIMINAL BEHAVIOR
empathy, affective responsiveness
School Resource Officer
MetadataShow full item record
PublisherThe University of Arizona.
RightsCopyright © is held by the author. Digital access to this material is made possible by the University Libraries, University of Arizona. Further transmission, reproduction or presentation (such as public display or performance) of protected items is prohibited except with permission of the author.
AbstractStudies show that a personality disorder is a risk factor in criminal behavior. However, the literature lacks clarity in isolating individual elements of personality disorders that pose a high risk of criminality. This literature review addresses that gap, answering, “What elements of personality disorders pose a high risk of criminal behavior?” It includes a review of relevant studies regarding the role of personality disorders in criminal behavior and identifies individual elements that present high-risk factors of criminality, including (1) impulsivity; (2) aggression; (3) emotional dysregulation; (4) egocentricity; (5) lack of empathy, affective responsiveness, and cognitive responsiveness; and (6) dishonesty and interpersonal manipulation. Identification of these specific risk factors ensures targeted interventions. The implications of this research are that successful treatments serve as a protective factor against recidivism and repeat institutionalization (i.e., juvenile detention, prison, and psychiatric).
Degree GrantorUniversity of Arizona
Showing items related by title, author, creator and subject.
AN EVALUATION OF TEACHER TRAINING IN CONSULTATION AND BEHAVIOR MODIFICATION AS A MEANS FOR INCREASING THE FREQUENCY OF SPECIFIC CATEGORIES OF CONSULTEE VERBAL BEHAVIOR.ANDERSON, TERESA KAY. (The University of Arizona., 1983)The delivery of school psychological services has in recent years centered increasingly on the consultative role. The implementation of the consultative approach in the school setting can be greatly facilitated by a variety of psychologist-initiated activities. Inservice training for teachers is one extremely valuable tool in this regard for the development of skills necessary for effective consultation and implementation of classroom-based intervention plans. It was the purpose of this study to evaluate the relative effectiveness of two teacher training packages under two analogue consultation dependent measure conditions in a 2 x 2 completely randomized factorial design. Subjects included 56 elementary school teachers in the Amphitheater School District in Tucson, Arizona. The packages evaluated focused on (1) training in classroom behavior modification and consultation, and (2) training in consultative service delivery procedures and general multidisciplinary team process (a non-specific training control). The analogue consultation dependent measure conditions included (1) specific and (2) general Problem Identification, Problem Analysis, and Problem Evaluation behavioral consultation elicitors. The effectiveness of these training packages was evaluated relative to knowledge of behavior modification principles and concepts, and relative to the frequency of specific categories of consultee verbal behaviors (Bergan, 1977). The results of this study suggest that the experimental training package was effective in increasing teacher knowledge of behavioral procedures. This training was also found to be effective in increasing the frequency of teacher verbalizations regarding overt child behaviors, behavioral observation techniques, and behavioral intervention plans during the Problem Identification and Problem Analysis phases of analogue consultation. It was found that even after training, specific consultant questions were important in eliciting consultee statements related to environmental conditions surrounding behavior. The use of more general types of consultant verbal behaviors, on the other hand, resulted in significantly more vague, unspecified, and irrelevant types of consultee verbalizations. Consultee training should be an integral part of the school consultation process. The results of this study indicate that teacher training in the skills necessary for effective identification, analysis, intervention, and evaluation of child learning and behavior problems in the classroom is a very viable approach.
The role of expectancies in smoking behavior in middle school and high school: An adaptation and extension of the theory of planned behaviorMaggs, Jennifer; Peecksen, David (The University of Arizona., 2002)This study focuses on the utility of the expectancy construct in the prediction of adolescent cigarette smoking within the theory of planned behavior (Ajzen, 1991), based on recommendations by Marlatt (1985). Specifically, positive and negative smoking expectancies were hypothesized to moderate the relationships of social norms and self-efficacy with smoking intentions and, and for self-efficacy only, smoking behavior. Factor analysis assessed the discriminant validity of the measures. Using multiple regression analyses, cross-sectional, self-report questionnaire data from 25,868 sixth through twelfth grade students were used to test the hypotheses. Consistent support was found for the additive effects predicting intentions to smoke and daily smoking. For the interactive effects, moderate support was found predicting intentions, but not daily smoking. Likewise, moderate support was found for school level and smoking status differences in these relationships. These findings are discussed in terms of their theoretical and prevention implications regarding the role and etiology of expectancies within the theory of planned behavior, social cognitive theory, and previous conceptualizations of risk and protective interactive effects.
Wandering Behavior in Manduca Sexta: Investigating Steroid Hormone Effects on Neural Circuits For Locomotor BehaviorLevine, Richard B.; Miller, Julie Elizabeth; Levine, Richard B.; Tolbert, Leslie P.; Rance, Naomi E.; Yool, Andrea J.; Gruener, Raphael P.; Fregosi, Ralph F. (The University of Arizona., 2005)Steroid hormones alter the excitability of neural circuits for motor behavior in vertebrates and invertebrates. The insect Manduca sexta, with its well-characterized developmental and endocrinological history, is a useful model system to study these effects. The wandering behavior is a stage-specific locomotor behavior triggered by the steroid hormone 20-hydroxyecdysone (20E) and consists of crawling and burrowing movements as the animal searches for a pupation site.The results of this dissertation show that 20E acts on the isolated larval nervous system to induce wandering activity. The mechanisms underlying the generation of this activity share features similar to other invertebrate systems, including the presence of segmental central pattern generating circuits. The time course for the nervous system response to 20E is long, suggestive of a genomic mechanism of action, and there are no earlier rapid effects of 20E on the intrinsic membrane properties of the abdominal motoneurons. The site of 20E action in inducing wandering locomotion is unlikely to be the abdominal motoneurons, but interneurons presynaptic to these motoneurons. One possible site of 20E action is the brain, which shows stage-dependent expression of ecdysteroid receptors in certain populations of neurons.Descending regulation by the brain and subesophageal ganglion (SEG) is exerted over the segmental motor circuits for crawling and burrowing and reflects stage-dependent differences. Prior to wandering, the brain exerts inhibition over the segmental motor circuits for crawling, but this inhibition is not present during wandering. Removal of the brain, SEG, and thoracic ganglia during on-going fictive locomotion alters the phase relationships between abdominal segments. Further alterations of fictive crawling motor output are observed in more reduced preparations, indicating the importance of intact connections between abdominal ganglia in the production of a reliable motor program. The SEG drives the fictive burrowing motor program. The burrowing motor program is more robustly expressed in nerve cords from wandering larvae, suggesting a stage-dependent difference due to 20E exposure. Subsequent future experiments will use electrophysiological methods and genetic manipulations in Manduca sexta and Drosophila melanogaster, respectively, to explore target sites for hormone action in the brain and the characterization of brain neurons that drive wandering behavior.