Response of Industrial Warm Drainage to Tide Revealed by Airborne and Sea Surface Observations
AffiliationSchool of Geography, Development & Environment, University of Arizona
Keywordsairborne remote sensing
industrial warm water drainage
seawater temperature monitoring
thermal infrared remote sensing
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CitationZhang, D., Zhu, Z., Zhang, L., Sun, X., Zhang, Z., Zhang, W., ... & Zhu, Q. (2022). Response of Industrial Warm Drainage to Tide Revealed by Airborne and Sea Surface Observations. Remote Sensing, 15(1), 205.
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AbstractMaintaining the balance between power station operation and environmental carrying capacity in the process of cooling water discharge into coastal waters is an essential issue to be considered. Earth observations with airborne and sea surface sensors can efficiently estimate distribution characteristics of extensive sea surface temperature compared with traditional numerical and physical simulations. Data acquisition timing windows for those sensors are designed according to tidal data. The airborne thermal infrared data (Thermal Airborne Spectrographic Imager, TASI) is preprocessed by algorithms of atmospheric correction, geometric correction, strip brightness gradient removal, and noise reduction, and then the seawater temperature is inversed in association with sea surface synchronous temperature measurement data (Sea-Bird Electronics, SBE). Verification analyses suggested a satisfied accuracy of less than about 0.2 °C error between the predicted and the measured values in general. Multiple factors influence seawater temperature, i.e., meteorology, ocean current, runoff, water depth, seawater convection, and eddy current; tidal activity is not the only one. Environmental background temperature in different seasons is the governing factor affecting the diffusion effect of seawater temperature drainage according to analyses of the covariances and correlation coefficients of eight tidal states. The present study presents an efficient and quick seawater temperature monitoring technique owing to industrial warm drainage to sea by means of a complete set of seawater temperature inversion algorithms with multi-source thermal infrared hyperspectral data. © 2022 by the authors.
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Except where otherwise noted, this item's license is described as © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license.