Now showing items 1-20 of 70694

    • Assessment of the Crop Water Stress Index and Color Quality of Bur Clover (Medicago polymorpha L.) Under Different Irrigation Regimes

      Bijanzadeh, Ehsan; Barati, Vahid; Emam, Yahya; Pessarakli, Mohammad; Univ Arizona, Sch Plant Sci (TAYLOR & FRANCIS INC, 2019-10-28)
      Relationship between canopy temperature and soil moisture is important for using the potential of canopy temperature as an indicator of crop water stress. A two-year field experiment was carried out during June to September 2016 and 2017 at the Research Station of College of Agriculture, Darab, Shiraz University, Iran, to determine crop water stress index (CWSI) for bur clover. Irrigation regimes including well-watered [Irrigation according to 100% field capacity (FC)], mild water stress (75% FC), severe water stress (50% FC), and most severe water stress (25% FC) were arranged in a randomized complete block design with four replications. In 2016, CWSI values showed an increasing trend from June (0.066 in well-watered) to August (0.821 in most severe water stress) as a result of higher vapor pressure deficit (VPD) and depression in canopy-air temperature differences (Tc-Ta). A similar trend was observed in the second year. In both years, by increase in mean temperature from June to August, Tc-Ta differential increased and the highest monthly average value of CWSI for all treatments was obtained in August. By enhancing water stress, the color grading score decreased sharply (from 6 to 3) and stayed constant (2) for August and September. Also, a negative relationship was observed between CWSI and dry matter production (R-2 = 0.88**) and color quality (R-2 = 0.94**). It was concluded that mild water stress (75% FC) with mean seasonal CWSI being ranged about 0.198 to 0.294, without any loss in visual color quality might be the best irrigation regime for bur clover production.
    • Locality domains and morphological rules: Phases, heads, node-sprouting and suppletion in Korean honorification

      Choi, Jaehoon; Harley, Heidi; Univ Arizona, Dept Linguist (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2019-11)
      Korean subject honorification and Korean negation have both affixal and suppletive exponents. In addition, Korean negation has a periphrastic realization involving an auxiliary verb. By examining their interaction, we motivate several hypotheses concerning locality constraints on the conditioning of suppletion and the insertion of dissociated morphemes (‘node-sprouting’). At the same time, we come to a better understanding of the nature of Korean subject honorification. We show that Korean honorific morphemes are ‘dissociated’ or ‘sprouted,’ i.e., introduced by morphosyntactic rule in accordance with morphological well-formedness constraints, like many other agreement morphemes. We argue that the conditioning domain for node-sprouting is the syntactic phase. In contrast, our data suggest that the conditioning domain for suppletion is the complex X0, as proposed by Bobaljik (2012). We show that the ‘spanning’ hypotheses concerning exponence (Merchant 2015; Svenonius 2012), the ‘linear adjacency’ hypotheses (Embick 2010), and ‘accessibility domain’ hypothesis (Moskal 2014, 2015a, 2015b; Moskal and Smith 2016) make incorrect predictions for Korean suppletion. Finally, we argue that competition between honorific and negative suppletive exponents reveals a root-outwards effect in allomorphic conditioning, supporting the idea that insertion of vocabulary items proceeds root-outwards (Bobaljik 2000).
    • Coarse muscovite veins and alteration in porphyry systems

      Runyon, Simone E.; Seedorff, Eric; Barton, Mark D.; Steele-MacInnis, Matthew; Lecumberri-Sanchez, Pilar; Mazdab, Frank K.; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (ELSEVIER, 2019-10)
      Coarse muscovite veins and alteration occur in porphyry copper and porphyry molybdenum-copper systems within the Laramide arc in Arizona, as well as at the Yerington district in Nevada. This work describes coarse muscovite in veins and altered wall rock in porphyry systems in this region and documents mineral assemblages, mineral compositions, spatial and temporal relationships, and hydrogen isotopic compositions. Coarse hydrothermal muscovite is documented in the roots of porphyry Cu +/- Mo systems, as well as in and above the ore bodies in porphyry Mo-Cu systems, and it is compared to coarse hydrothermal muscovite (greisen) in lode Sn-W-Mo systems. Basin and Range extension has exposed coarse hydrothermal muscovite in several Laramide and Jurassic porphyry Cu (+/- Mo) systems, at paleodepths of 3 to 12 km: Miami-Inspiration, Sierrita-Esperanza, Copper Basin (Crown King), Granite Mountain (roots of the Ray porphyry system), Gunnison (Texas Canyon stock), Grayback (Kelvin-Riverside district), Sycamore Canyon, the New Cornelia mine (Ajo district), and two systems in the Yerington district. Muscovite is the dominant mica in these coarse muscovite veins and associated alteration, with common K-feldspar and albite (An(00-)(06)), common accessory hematite, rutile, pyrite, and apatite, and rare accessory chalcopyrite, fluorite, molybdenite, wolframite, and scheelite. Coarse hydrothermal muscovite yields delta D compositions that suggest formation from fluids that are dominantly magmatic-hydrothermal in origin. Whole-rock compositions of coarse hydrothermal muscovite show common gains in K and loss of Ca +/- Na. Coarse muscovite veins and alteration in porphyry copper systems postdate mineralized potassic veins and form too deeply to overlap with shallower acidic forms of alteration (sericitic, advanced argillic). Variation in mineral assemblage, mineral compositions, and mineralization of coarse hydrothermal muscovite correlate with the composition of Laramide stocks. Porphyry Mo-Cu systems contain coarse muscovite alteration assemblages with the highest mineral diversity and trace-element enrichment. Coarse muscovite veins and alteration in porphyry Mo-Cu systems related to stocks ranging from quartz monzonite to granite in composition form at shallower paleodepths and occur within and above the associated orebodies. In contrast, coarse muscovite veins and alteration associated with subalkaline porphyry copper systems occur at deeper levels, in some cases overlapping with the bottom of potassic alteration and the ore body but extending well into the roots of the system in the underlying granitoid cupola. In these latter systems, zones of coarse muscovite alteration typically are poorly mineralized and mineral assemblages are less varied. These characteristics suggest that coarse muscovite-forming fluids are predominately of magmatic-hydrothermal origin and exsolved from late-stage, fractionated magmas of the larger pluton that sourced porphyry stocks and dikes responsible for porphyry copper mineralization. In some instances, however, the exposed coarse muscovite alteration is associated with a petrologically unrelated, commonly more felsic, later intrusion, rather than being related to late exsolution of fluid from the same crystallizing stock or batholith.
    • Toward a Universal μ-Agonist Template for Template-Based Alignment Modeling of Opioid Ligands

      Wu, Zhijun; Hruby, Victor J; Univ Arizona, Dept Chem & Biochem (AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 2019-10-22)
      Opioid ligands are a large group of G-protein-coupled receptor ligands possessing high structural diversity, along with complicated structure–activity relationships (SARs). To better understand their structural correlations as well as the related SARs, we developed the innovative template-based alignment modeling in our recent studies on a variety of opioid ligands. As previously reported, this approach showed promise but also with limitations, which was mainly attributed to the small size of morphine as a template. With this study, we set out to construct an artificial μ-agonist template to overcome this limitation. The newly constructed template contained a largely extended scaffold, along with a few special μ-features relevant to the μ-selectivity of opioid ligands. As demonstrated in this paper, the new template showed significantly improved efficacy in facilitating the alignment modeling of a wide variety of opioid ligands. This report comprises of two main parts. Part 1 discusses the general construction process and the structural features as well as a few typical examples of the template applications and Part 2 focuses on the template refinement and validation.
    • Magnetization switching using topological surface states

      Li, Peng; Kally, James; Zhang, Steven S-L; Pillsbury, Timothy; Ding, Jinjun; Csaba, Gyorgy; Ding, Junjia; Jiang, J S; Liu, Yunzhi; Sinclair, Robert; et al. (AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE, 2019-08-30)
      Topological surface states (TSSs) in a topological insulator are expected to be able to produce a spin-orbit torque that can switch a neighboring ferromagnet. This effect may be absent if the ferromagnet is conductive because it can completely suppress the TSSs, but it should be present if the ferromagnet is insulating. This study reports TSS-induced switching in a bilayer consisting of a topological insulator Bi2Se3 and an insulating ferromagnet BaFe12O19. A charge current in Bi2Se3 can switch the magnetization in BaFe12O19 up and down. When the magnetization is switched by a field, a current in Bi2Se3 can reduce the switching field by ~4000 Oe. The switching efficiency at 3 K is 300 times higher than at room temperature; it is ~30 times higher than in Pt/BaFe12O19. These strong effects originate from the presence of more pronounced TSSs at low temperatures due to enhanced surface conductivity and reduced bulk conductivity.
    • THE EQUALITY NORM MEETS THE EVOLUTION OF PROPERTY IN THE LAW OF “TAKINGS”

      Rose, Carol M.; Univ Arizona, Law Coll (CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS, 2018-12-04)
      A norm of equal treatment is cited regularly in the American jurisprudence of property takings under the Fifth and Fourteenth Amendments to the Constitution, as a benchmark of fair treatment of owners. According to an increasingly prevalent version of this equality norm, courts should look to parity of treatment among property owners in investigating whether particular regulations take property. This essay argues, however, that such an equality norm is misplaced, and that courts should judge fairness by the criterion of expectationincluding reasonable expectations of regulation.A norm of equality becomes problematic in the face of the economic theory of the evolution of property. This theory posits that as resources become more congested, their uses carry increasing common pool costs or externalitiesa scenario that should predictably result in more stringent resource managementup to and including the establishment of regulatory regimes as well as property rights themselves. This evolutionary pattern, however, places earlier and later resource users in different positions vis-a-vis both common pool externalities and regulatory responses, and their different temporal positions fragment the meaning of equal treatment and destabilize it as a jurisprudential norm. This essay argues that while equal treatment may be a benchmark for special or invidious cases, like those relating to civil rights, the great bulk of takings cases involve regulatory responses to congesting resources, where a norm of equal treatment breaks down. Thus, in seeking fair treatment, takings jurisprudence should downplay equality and instead look to the understanding of property as a basis of expectationsbut those expectations should include the anticipation of reasonable regulatory responses to resource congestion.
    • Simulation of Eocene extreme warmth and high climate sensitivity through cloud feedbacks

      Zhu, Jiang; Poulsen, Christopher J; Tierney, Jessica E; Univ Arizona, Dept Geosci (AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE, 2019-09-18)
      The Early Eocene, a period of elevated atmospheric CO2 (>1000 ppmv), is considered an analog for future climate. Previous modeling attempts have been unable to reproduce major features of Eocene climate indicated by proxy data without substantial modification to the model physics. Here, we present simulations using a state-of-the-art climate model forced by proxy-estimated CO2 levels that capture the extreme surface warmth and reduced latitudinal temperature gradient of the Early Eocene and the warming of the Paleocene-Eocene Thermal Maximum. Our simulations exhibit increasing equilibrium climate sensitivity with warming and suggest an Eocene sensitivity of more than 6.6°C, much greater than the present-day value (4.2°C). This higher climate sensitivity is mainly attributable to the shortwave cloud feedback, which is linked primarily to cloud microphysical processes. Our findings highlight the role of small-scale cloud processes in determining large-scale climate changes and suggest a potential increase in climate sensitivity with future warming.
    • Disruption of cardiac thin filament assembly arising from a mutation in : A novel mechanism of neonatal dilated cardiomyopathy

      Ahrens-Nicklas, Rebecca C; Pappas, Christopher T; Farman, Gerrie P; Mayfield, Rachel M; Larrinaga, Tania M; Medne, Livija; Ritter, Alyssa; Krantz, Ian D; Murali, Chaya; Lin, Kimberly Y; et al. (AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE, 2019-09-04)
      Neonatal heart failure is a rare, poorly-understood presentation of familial dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM). Exome sequencing in a neonate with severe DCM revealed a homozygous nonsense variant in leiomodin 2 (LMOD2, p.Trp398*). Leiomodins (Lmods) are actin-binding proteins that regulate actin filament assembly. While disease-causing mutations in smooth (LMOD1) and skeletal (LMOD3) muscle isoforms have been described, the cardiac (LMOD2) isoform has not been previously associated with human disease. Like our patient, Lmod2-null mice have severe early-onset DCM and die before weaning. The infant's explanted heart showed extraordinarily short thin filaments with isolated cardiomyocytes displaying a large reduction in maximum calcium-activated force production. The lack of extracardiac symptoms in Lmod2-null mice, and remarkable morphological and functional similarities between the patient and mouse model informed the decision to pursue cardiac transplantation in the patient. To our knowledge, this is the first report of aberrant cardiac thin filament assembly associated with human cardiomyopathy.
    • Utility of point-of-care musculoskeletal ultrasound in the evaluation of emergency department musculoskeletal pathology

      Situ-LaCasse, Elaine; Grieger, Ryan W; Crabbe, Stephen; Waterbrook, Anna L; Friedman, Lucas; Adhikari, Srikar; Univ Arizona, Dept Emergency Med; Univ Arizona, Coll Med (ZHEJIANG UNIV SCH MEDICINE, 2018-09)
      Background: To evaluate the utilization of point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) for the assessment of emergency department (ED) patients with musculoskeletal symptoms and the impact of musculoskeletal POCUS on medical decision-making and patient management in the ED. Methods: This was a retrospective review of ED patients presenting with musculoskeletal symptoms who received a POCUS over a 3.5-year period. An ED POCUS database was reviewed for musculoskeletal POCUS examinations used for medical decision-making. Electronic medical records were then reviewed for demographic characteristics, history, physical examination findings, ED course, additional imaging studies, and impact of musculoskeletal POCUS on patient management in ED. Results: A total of 264 subjects (92 females, 172 males) and 292 musculoskeletal POCUS examinations were included in the final analysis. Most common symptomatic sites were knee (31.8%) and ankle (16.3%). Joint effusion was the most common finding on musculoskeletal POCUS, noted in 33.7% of the patients, and subcutaneous edema/cobblestoning was found in 10.2% of the patients. Muscle or tendon rupture was found in 2.3% of the patients, and 1.9% of the patients had joint dislocation. Bursitis or bursa fluid was found in 3.4% of patients, and tendonitis/tendinopathy was found in 2.3%. Twenty percent of them were ultrasound-guided musculoskeletal procedures, and most of them (73.3%) were arthrocentesis. Of the included studies, all except three either changed or helped guide patient management as documented in the patients' medical records. Conclusion: Our study findings illustrate the utility of POCUS in the evaluation of a variety of musculoskeletal pathologies in the ED.
    • Complete and Incomplete Pentalogy of Cantrell

      Kylat, Ranjit I; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Pediat (MDPI, 2019-10-06)
      Pentalogy of Cantrell (PC) is a malformation characterized by defects in the ventral abdominal wall, lower sternum, diaphragmatic pericardium, anterior diaphragm associated with omphalocele, thoraco-abdominal ectopia cordis, diaphragmatic hernia, and intracardiac abnormalities. PC is stratified as complete or incomplete and we present both the complete and incomplete forms.
    • Healthcare system indicators associated with modern contraceptive use in Ghana, Kenya, and Nigeria: evidence from the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020 data

      Asaolu, Ibitola; Nuño, Velia Leybas; Ernst, Kacey; Taren, Douglas; Ehiri, John; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Epidemiol & Biostat; Univ Arizona, Mel & Enid Zuckerman Coll Publ Hlth, Dept Hlth Promot Sci (BMC, 2019-10-26)
      Background Public health literature is replete with evidence on individual and interpersonal indicators of modern contraceptive use. There is, however, limited knowledge regarding healthcare system indicators of modern contraceptive use. This study assessed how the healthcare system influences use of modern contraceptive among women in Ghana, Kenya, and two large population states in Nigeria. Methods This study used data from Phase 1 of the Performance Monitoring and Accountability 2020. The analytical sample was limited to women with a need for contraception, defined as women of reproductive age (15 to 49 years) who wish to delay or limit childbirth. Therefore, this analysis consisted of 1066, 1285, and 1955 women from Nigeria, Ghana, and Kenya respectively. Indicators of healthcare assessed include user-fees, visit by health worker, type of health facility, multiple perinatal services, adolescent reproductive healthcare, density of healthcare workers, and regularity of contraceptive services. All analyses were conducted with SAS (9.4), with statistical significance set at p < 5%. Results The prevalence of modern contraceptive was 22.7, 33.2, and 68.9% in Nigeria, Ghana, and Kenya respectively. The odds of modern contraceptive use were higher among Nigerian women who lived within areas that provide adolescent reproductive healthcare (OR = 2.05; 95% C.I. = 1.05-3.99) and Kenyan women residing in locales with polyclinic or hospitals (OR = 1.91; 1.27-2.88). Also, the odds of contraceptive use were higher among Kenyan women who lived in areas with user-fee for contraceptive services (OR = 1.40; 1.07-1.85), but lower among Ghanaian women residing in such areas (OR = 0.46; 0.23-0.92). Lastly, the odds of modern contraceptive use were higher among women visited by a health-worker visit among women in Ghana (OR = 1.63; 1.11-2.42) and Nigeria (OR = 2.97; 1.56-5.67) than those without a visit. Conclusion This study found an association between country-specific indicators of healthcare and modern contraceptive use. Evidence from this study can inform policy makers, health workers, and healthcare organizations on specific healthcare factors to target in meeting the need for contraception in Ghana, Kenya, and Nigeria.
    • Predictors and their prognostic value for no ROSC and mortality after a non-cardiac surgery intraoperative cardiac arrest: a retrospective cohort study

      Vane, Matheus F; Carmona, Maria J C; Pereira, Sergio M; Kern, Karl B; Timerman, Sérgio; Perez, Guilherme; Vane, Luiz Antonio; Otsuki, Denise Aya; Auler, José O C; Univ Arizona, Saver Heart Ctr (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-10-18)
      Data on predictors of intraoperative cardiac arrest (ICA) outcomes are scarce in the literature. This study analysed predictors of poor outcome and their prognostic value after an ICA. Clinical and laboratory data before and 24 hours (h) after ICA were analysed as predictors for no return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and 24 h and 1-year mortality. Receiver operating characteristic curves for each predictor and sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative likelihood ratios, and post-test probability were calculated. A total of 167,574 anaesthetic procedures were performed, including 158 cases of ICAs. Based on the predictors for no ROSC, a threshold of 13 minutes of ICA yielded the highest area under curve (AUC) (0.867[0.80–0.93]), with a sensitivity and specificity of 78.4% [69.6–86.3%] and 89.3% [80.4–96.4%], respectively. For the 1-year mortality, the GCS without the verbal component 24 h after an ICA had the highest AUC (0.616 [0.792–0.956]), with a sensitivity of 79.3% [65.5–93.1%] and specificity of 86.1 [74.4–95.4]. ICA duration and GCS 24 h after the event had the best prognostic value for no ROSC and 1-year mortality. For 24 h mortality, no predictors had prognostic value.
    • ZBTB32 restrains antibody responses to murine cytomegalovirus infections, but not other repetitive challenges

      Jash, Arijita; Zhou, You W; Gerardo, Diana K; Ripperger, Tyler J; Parikh, Bijal A; Piersma, Sytse; Jamwal, Deepa R; Kiela, Pawel R; Boon, Adrianus C M; Yokoyama, Wayne M; et al. (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-10-24)
      ZBTB32 is a transcription factor that is highly expressed by a subset of memory B cells and restrains the magnitude and duration of recall responses against hapten-protein conjugates. To define physiological contexts in which ZBTB32 acts, we assessed responses by Zbtb32-/- mice or bone marrow chimeras against a panel of chronic and acute challenges. Mixed bone marrow chimeras were established in which all B cells were derived from either Zbtb32-/- mice or control littermates. Chronic infection of Zbtb32-/- chimeras with murine cytomegalovirus led to nearly 20-fold higher antigen-specific IgG2b levels relative to controls by week 9 post-infection, despite similar viral loads. In contrast, IgA responses and specificities in the intestine, where memory B cells are repeatedly stimulated by commensal bacteria, were similar between Zbtb32-/- mice and control littermates. Finally, an infection and heterologous booster vaccination model revealed no role for ZBTB32 in restraining primary or recall antibody responses against influenza viruses. Thus, ZBTB32 does not limit recall responses to a number of physiological acute challenges, but does restrict antibody levels during chronic viral infections that periodically engage memory B cells. This restriction might selectively prevent recall responses against chronic infections from progressively overwhelming other antibody specificities.
    • A Recent Systematic Increase in Vapor Pressure Deficit over Tropical South America

      Barkhordarian, Armineh; Saatchi, Sassan S; Behrangi, Ali; Loikith, Paul C; Mechoso, Carlos R; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-10-25)
      We show a recent increasing trend in Vapor Pressure Deficit (VPD) over tropical South America in dry months with values well beyond the range of trends due to natural variability of the climate system defined in both the undisturbed Preindustrial climate and the climate over 850-1850 perturbed with natural external forcing. This trend is systematic in the southeast Amazon but driven by episodic droughts (2005, 2010, 2015) in the northwest, with the highest recoded VPD since 1979 for the 2015 drought. The univariant detection analysis shows that the observed increase in VPD cannot be explained by greenhouse-gas-induced (GHG) radiative warming alone. The bivariate attribution analysis demonstrates that forcing by elevated GHG levels and biomass burning aerosols are attributed as key causes for the observed VPD increase. We further show that There is a negative trend in evaporative fraction in the southeast Amazon, where lack of atmospheric moisture, reduced precipitation together with higher incoming solar radiation (~7% decade-1 cloud-cover reduction) influences the partitioning of surface energy fluxes towards less evapotranspiration. The VPD increase combined with the decrease in evaporative fraction are the first indications of positive climate feedback mechanisms, which we show that will continue and intensify in the course of unfolding anthropogenic climate change.
    • Bi-allelic variants in RNF170 are associated with hereditary spastic paraplegia

      Wagner, Matias; Osborn, Daniel P S; Gehweiler, Ina; Nagel, Maike; Ulmer, Ulrike; Bakhtiari, Somayeh; Amouri, Rim; Boostani, Reza; Hentati, Faycal; Hockley, Maryam M; et al. (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-10-21)
      Alterations of Ca2+ homeostasis have been implicated in a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases. Ca2+ efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum into the cytoplasm is controlled by binding of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate to its receptor. Activated inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors are then rapidly degraded by the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation pathway. Mutations in genes encoding the neuronal isoform of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor (ITPR1) and genes involved in inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor degradation (ERLIN1, ERLIN2) are known to cause hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP) and cerebellar ataxia. We provide evidence that mutations in the ubiquitin E3 ligase gene RNF170, which targets inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors for degradation, are the likely cause of autosomal recessive HSP in four unrelated families and functionally evaluate the consequences of mutations in patient fibroblasts, mutant SH-SY5Y cells and by gene knockdown in zebrafish. Our findings highlight inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate signaling as a candidate key pathway for hereditary spastic paraplegias and cerebellar ataxias and thus prioritize this pathway for therapeutic interventions.
    • Reduced tree growth in the semiarid United States due to asymmetric responses to intensifying precipitation extremes

      Dannenberg, Matthew P; Wise, Erika K; Smith, William K; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (AMER ASSOC ADVANCEMENT SCIENCE, 2019-10-02)
      Earth’s hydroclimatic variability is increasing, with changes in the frequency of extreme events that may negatively affect forest ecosystems. We examined possible consequences of changing precipitation variability using tree rings in the conterminous United States. While many growth records showed either little evidence of precipitation limitation or linear relationships to precipitation, growth of some species (particularly those in semiarid regions) responded asymmetrically to precipitation such that tree growth reductions during dry years were greater than, and not compensated by, increases during wet years. The U.S. Southwest, in particular, showed a large increase in precipitation variability, coupled with asymmetric responses of growth to precipitation. Simulations suggested roughly a twofold increase in the probability of large negative growth anomalies across the Southwest resulting solely from 20th century increases in variability of cool-season precipitation. Models project continued increases in precipitation variability, portending future growth reductions across semiarid forests of the western United States.
    • A Case of Myeloid Sarcoma following Allogeneic HSCT Presenting as Localized Hip Pain

      Zhang, Shannon; Charlton, Casey; Amaraneni, Akshay; Maher, Keri; Univ Arizona, Tucson Coll Med (HINDAWI LTD, 2019-10-02)
      Myeloid sarcoma is a rare variant of acute myeloid leukemia (AML) which presents as an extramedullary soft tissue mass. Due to the rarity of this disease, along with nonspecific presenting symptoms, diagnosis can be delayed or missed without a high index of suspicion. In this case, we discuss a patient diagnosed with AML relapse in the form of myeloid sarcoma two years after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplant (alloHSCT) for myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) with the initial presentation for back pain misdiagnosed as spinal stenosis. This case report aims to help healthcare providers in recognizing the early signs and symptoms of this disorder as well as provide information in regards to treatment options and risk assessment.
    • COX7A1 suppresses the viability of human non-small cell lung cancer cells via regulating autophagy

      Zhao, Lei; Chen, Xin; Feng, Yetong; Wang, Guangsuo; Nawaz, Imran; Hu, Lifu; Liu, Pengfei; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Med (WILEY, 2019-10-30)
      COX7A1 is a subunit of cytochrome c oxidase, and plays an important role in the super‐assembly that integrates peripherally into multi‐unit heteromeric complexes in the mitochondrial respiratory chain. In recent years, some researchers have identified that COX7A1 is implicated in human cancer cell metabolism and therapy. In this study, we mainly explored the effect of COX7A1 on the cell viability of lung cancer cells. COX7A1 overexpression was induced by vector transfection in NCI‐H838 cells. Cell proliferation, colony formation and cell apoptosis were evaluated in different groups. In addition, autophagy was analyzed by detecting the expression level of p62 and LC3, as well as the tandem mRFP‐GFP‐LC3 reporter assay respectively. Our results indicated that the overexpression of COX7A1 suppressed cell proliferation and colony formation ability, and promoted cell apoptosis in human non‐small cell lung cancer cells. Besides, the overexpression of COX7A1 blocked autophagic flux and resulted in the accumulation of autophagosome via downregulation of PGC‐1α and upregulation of NOX2. Further analysis showed that the effect of COX7A1 overexpression on cell viability was partly dependent of the inhibition of autophagy. Herein, we identified that COX7A1 holds a key position in regulating the development and progression of lung cancer by affecting autophagy. Although the crosstalk among COX7A1, PGC‐1α and NOX2 needs further investigation, our study provides a novel insight into the therapeutic action of COX7A1 against human non‐small cell lung cancer.
    • Ecosystem-bedrock interaction changes nutrient compartmentalization during early oxidative weathering

      Zaharescu, Dragos G; Burghelea, Carmen I; Dontsova, Katerina; Presler, Jennifer K; Hunt, Edward A; Domanik, Kenneth J; Amistadi, Mary K; Sandhaus, Shana; Munoz, Elise N; Gaddis, Emily E; et al. (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-10-18)
      Ecosystem-bedrock interactions power the biogeochemical cycles of Earth's shallow crust, supporting life, stimulating substrate transformation, and spurring evolutionary innovation. While oxidative processes have dominated half of terrestrial history, the relative contribution of the biosphere and its chemical fingerprints on Earth's developing regolith are still poorly constrained. Here, we report results from a two-year incipient weathering experiment. We found that the mass release and compartmentalization of major elements during weathering of granite, rhyolite, schist and basalt was rock-specific and regulated by ecosystem components. A tight interplay between physiological needs of different biota, mineral dissolution rates, and substrate nutrient availability resulted in intricate elemental distribution patterns. Biota accelerated CO2 mineralization over abiotic controls as ecosystem complexity increased, and significantly modified the stoichiometry of mobilized elements. Microbial and fungal components inhibited element leaching (23.4% and 7%), while plants increased leaching and biomass retention by 63.4%. All biota left comparable biosignatures in the dissolved weathering products. Nevertheless, the magnitude and allocation of weathered fractions under abiotic and biotic treatments provide quantitative evidence for the role of major biosphere components in the evolution of upper continental crust, presenting critical information for large-scale biogeochemical models and for the search for stable in situ biosignatures beyond Earth.
    • Evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of direct oral anticoagulants and low molecular weight heparin in gastrointestinal cancer-associated venous thromboembolism

      Recio-Boiles, Alejandro; Veeravelli, Sumana; Vondrak, Jessica; Babiker, Hani M; Scott, Aaron J; Shroff, Rachna T; Patel, Hitendra; Elquza, Emad; McBride, Ali; Univ Arizona, Canc Ctr, Dept Med Hematol & Med Oncol; et al. (BAISHIDENG PUBLISHING GROUP INC, 2019-10-15)
      A total of 144 patients were prescribed anticoagulation, in which 106 fulfilled inclusion criteria apixaban (27.3%), rivaroxaban (34.9%) and enoxaparin (37.7%), and 38 were excluded. Patients median age was 66.5 years at GICA diagnosis and 67 years at CAVTE event, with 62% males, 80% Caucasian, 70% stage IV, pancreatic cancer (40.5%), 30% Khorana Score (≥ 3 points), and 43.5% on active chemotherapy. Sixty-four percent of patients completed anticoagulation therapy (range 1 to 43 mo). Recurrent VTE at 6 mo was noted in 7.5% (n = 3), 6.8% (n = 2) and 2.7% (n = 1) of patients on enoxaparin, apixaban and rivaroxaban, respectively (all P = NS). MB at 6 mo were 5% (n = 2) for enoxaparin, 6.8% (n = 2) for apixaban and 21.6% (n = 8) for rivaroxaban (overall P = 0.048; vs LMWH P = 0.0423; all other P = NS). Significant predictors of a primary or secondary outcome for all anticoagulation therapies included: Active systemic treatment (OR = 5.1, 95%CI: 1.3-19.3), high Khorana Score [≥ 3 points] (OR = 5.5, 95%CI: 1.7-17.1), active smoker (OR = 6.7, 95%CI: 2.1-21.0), pancreatic cancer (OR = 6.8, 95%CI: 1.9-23.2), and stage IV disease (OR = 9.9, 95%CI: 1.2-79.1).