Now showing items 1-20 of 105751

    • An Examination of Peer-to-Peer Scaffolding as Metacognitive Support for Learning

      Wen, Wen; Castek, Jill; Teaching, Learning, and Sociocultural Studies, University of Arizona (InTech Open, 2023-12-09)
      This descriptive study examines peer-to-peer scaffolding implemented in an undergraduate, online digital literacies course for future educators. It identifies the different features of students collaboration processes and how these processes function as peer scaffolding to support their learning. Analyses of students’ collaborative dialog and reflections on their collaboration processes. By analyzing dialog, this study examines how collaborative discussion that is high quality can act as a form of peer-to-peer scaffolding that encourages metacognition. Peer-to-peer scaffolding not only provides just-in-time support, but also triggers students’ regulation thus helping them to refine their understanding and enhance self-awareness of their learning processes. Findings suggest that productive collaboration can serve as a useful means of peer-to-peer scaffolding marked by five specific features: 1) complementing each other’s expertise, 2) co-constructing knowledge, 3) collaborating to problem-solve, 4) encouraging reciprocal support, and 5) triggering regulation. Findings further explore students’ perspectives on collaboration. Students felt they benefited from peer-to-peer collaboration when the collaboration yielded the development of new ideas and understanding, offered support for problem solving, and provided opportunities for self-reflection. These markers of quality collaboration assisted students in achieving their learning goals. Recommendations outlined in this chapter offer guidance for educators by describing ways to promote productive collaboration when designing and implementing instruction.
    • Platform and Reagent Optimization Towards Detection of PFOA With a Simple Lateral Flow Assay

      Yoon, Jeong-Yeol; Thomas, Chloe Thomas; Farrell-Poe, Kitt; Hall, Caitlyn (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Current methods to detect PFOA in drinking water require expensive, specialized equipment and trained operators. This research builds on previous research with the goal of creating a low-cost flow rate based microfluidic assay to test water for PFOA. The aims of this research include creating a platform for repeatable capillary flow rate-based testing and to determine the optimal reagents that interact with PFOA. Utilizing System Automated Loading for Sample Analysis (SALSA), the platform achieved greater consistency within individual chip channels and across multiple chips, evidenced by reduced standard deviation when compared to traditional pipetting techniques. Additionally, the platform demonstrated improved k-value consistency over successive uses relative to manual pipetting. The research also evaluated seven reagents for their effectiveness in detecting perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in deionized water samples. Of these reagents, glutamine and L-lysine showed no statistically significant differences between PFOA-spiked samples and controls, indicating they may not significantly alter k-values for further assay development. In contrast, larger proteins such as bovine serum albumin (BSA) and lysozyme yielded promising results for PFOA detection. BSA displayed linear detection within the range of 100 ag/µL to 1 pg/µL PFOA, enabling approximate concentration measurement. This study identifies five reagents—BSA, lysozyme, myoglobin, glycine, and L-aspartic acid—as suitable for PFOA detection in water samples using a flow rate-based assay. The potential for further refinement of the assay towards cost-effectiveness and specificity, as well as the application of machine learning for enhanced data analysis, is highlighted. In initial ML trails using XGBoost, samples spiked with PFOA were differentiated from a DI control with 95% accuracy. Notably, the SALSA platform provides a viable solution for consistent chip loading in various flow rate-based assays, offering rapid performance and cost-efficiency without the need for target-specific antibodies.
    • Organic Phosphorus Compound Class Utilization by Marine Microorganisms in the Amazon River Plume

      Duhamel, Solange; Feldmann, Isabella Katarina; Charest, Pascal; Russell, Joellen (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Dissolved marine phosphorus (P) consists of inorganic P (essentially phosphate, Pi) and organic P (DOP), encompassing P-esters, P-anhydrides, and phosphonates. Marine microorganisms use DOP compounds as a source of P, particularly in regions where Pi is scarce, though it is unclear which bond classes of DOP are preferentially utilized by natural microbial assemblages. Here we explored the potential microbial utilization of different DOP compounds at three stations with background Pi concentrations ranging from 50 to 70 nmol L-1, along the Amazon River Plume. We carried out seawater incubations by adding 20 µmol L-1 DOP as either adenosine monophosphate (AMP, P-ester bond), 3-polyphosphate (3PP, P-anhydride bonds), adenosine triphosphate (ATP, containing both P-ester and P-anhydride bonds), or methylphosphonate (MnPh, a phosphonate). Our results showed that most of the added AMP and ATP were hydrolyzed in 48 hours, as evidenced by a decrease in DOP concentrations and an increase in Pi concentration amounting to approximately 18 µmol L-1. These compounds were hydrolyzed by microbial communities since we ruled out autohydrolysis based on stable DOP compounds concentrations measured in MilliQ control samples. In contrast, the hydrolysis of 3PP and MnPh was low or negligible. While recent studies in culture have demonstrated that some phytoplankton species can break down and preferentially use P-anhydrides, our results from natural samples suggest that the microbial community as a whole degrades P-esters in larger amounts. We found that picophytoplankton and bacterial communities both benefited from the hydrolysis of P-esters, specifically the AMP and ATP that were tested, resulting in increased cell abundance. The findings carry significance for both the bioavailability of marine DOP and the broader process of ocean nutrient recycling within dissolved organic matter.
    • Designing, Manufacturing, and Testing a Wind Gust Generator

      Shkarayev, Sergey V.; Nietzel, Kylar Joshua; Hanquist, Kyle; Krokhmal, Pavlo (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      A two-vane wind gust generator has been designed, manufactured, and tested at the Arizona Low-Speed Wind Tunnel at the University of Arizona to meet the regulations defined in the FAR and CS by the FAA and EASA respectfully. A gust generator is a necessary feature for a wind tunnel because the response of a system can be analyzed when it is introduced to specific gusts parameters. Wind gusts change the pressure distribution over a body and cause the greatest aerodynamic structural loads on an aerial vehicle. Commercial aircraft use gust load alleviation systems to alter the pressure distributions around their wings to ultimately reduce any stress on the root of the wing. So, testing these systems in a controlled wind tunnel environment is beneficial for their optimization. In addition, there is an increasing interest in air vehicles for planetary exploration with numerous rotor and fixed wing aircraft being proposed in light of the accomplishments from the Ingenuity helicopter. Therefore, to increase airframe reliability under varying environments, it is important to consider the aeroelastic effects because they affect the aerodynamic performance, maneuverability, and control of an aerial vehicle. Previous gains in literature determined the best possible configuration for a wind gust generator, which was a two-vane configuration, and also established a technique to improve the discrete gust profile. Theresearch throughout this paper was aimed at designing a wind gust generator to fit the dimensions in the wind tunnel, conducting hot-wire measurements to quantify the generated gust, enhancing the discrete gust profile, classifying the enhanced discrete gust, and creating an input to output algorithm to generate specific gusts for future models. Overall, this wind gust generator was capable of creating the “1-cos” gust profile modeled by aviation authorities and able to obtain governing equations for a servomotor input to gust response output relationship. This wind gust generator was designed for a motor frequency up to 20 hertz and a motor amplitude up to 20 degrees. The work presented in this thesis is for a maximum motor frequency of 10 hertz, a maximum motor amplitude of 10 degrees, and a maximum tunnel velocity of 25 m/s.
    • Mutation of RPA2 May Be Connected to Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

      Sweasy, Joann; Nelson, Mark; Smith, Yasmeen; Lybarger, Lonnie; Wilson, Justin (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease that affects multiple organ systems and is characterized by the production of autoantibodies (Kumar, Abbas et al. 2023). Disease injury is caused by antigen-antibody complex deposition and antibodies binding to various tissues. SLE is quite common with 20 to 150 cases per 100,000 in the united states; it primarily affects women with a ratio of 9:1 females to males (Kumar, Abbas et al. 2023, Schur and Hahn 2023). Many genetic associations have been made to SLE such as mutatedRPA2 which is single nucleotide polymorphisms that is enriched in SLE patients. Replication protein A (RPA) is a heterotrimer that binds ssDNA. RPA is involved with multiple pathways in the cell such as DNA repair and DNA replication (Byrne and Oakley 2019). The aim of this thesis was the characterization of the RPA genetic variant with the goal of determining if it was sufficient to induce a for SLE phenotype. The hypothesis of this project: the RPA2 (RPA32) genetic variant plays a functional role in the etiology of SLE. RPA2 genetic variant was created using CRISPR. The characterization of RPA was done through a series of experiment: anti-nuclear antibody staining, cytokine profiling, kidney histology, glomerular deposition, ELISA for total IgG and IgM, ELISA for ssDNA and dsDNA, and germinal centers in a mouse model. There was a significant difference found in the anti-nuclear antibody staining and the cytokine profiling comparing mice with wild type RPA2 versus a mutant allele. The anti-nuclear antibody staining showed significantly higher levels in the 6-month group of RPA2 mutant mice compared to wild type mice. In addition, significantly higher levels of ANA were observed in the RPA2 G15R/ R homozygous versus wild-type mice at 12-months of age. IL-6, IL-10, and IL-15 had the most change in cytokine levels between wild type and mutant mice. Data suggest there could be an association between RPA2 and the development of SLE. However further studies are warranted. In the future it will be important to look at other phenotypes related to SLE, such as in the skin and GI tract. It would also be good to try stressing the mice with different stressors such as UV light and viruses to see if that would give a stronger immunological response consistent with SLE.
    • CNS Drug Delivery in Stroke: Organic Anion Transporting Polypeptide (Oatp)-Mediated Delivery of Atorvastatin is a Requirement for Neuroprotection

      Ronaldson, Patrick T.; Williams, Erica Iris; Davis, Thomas P.; Doyle, Kristian; Vanderah, Todd; Lochhead, Jeff (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Stroke is the 5th most common cause of death and the leading cause of long-term disability in the United States. Drug development for ischemic stroke is challenging as evidenced by the lack of therapeutics that have advanced beyond a phase III clinical trial. There are many reasons for this lack of clinical translation including factors related to the experimental design of preclinical stroke studies. Often overlooked in therapeutic development for ischemic stroke is the requirement of effective drug delivery to the brain, which is critical for neuroprotective efficacy of several small and large molecule drugs. Advancing central nervous system (CNS) drug delivery technologies implies a need for detailed comprehension of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and neurovascular unit (NVU). Such knowledge will permit the innate biology of the BBB/NVU to be leveraged for improved bench-to-bedside translation of novel stroke therapeutics. At present, FDA-approved drug treatments for ischemic stroke are limited to recombinant-tissue plasminogen activator (r- tPA; Alteplase, Activase®), which is not available to many patients due to its short therapeutic window (i.e., 4.5 h) and clinically significant risk of bleeding complications. Although recanalization in infarcted brain tissue is critical, the adverse events associated with r-tPA treatment are not trivial and can promote neurologic and vascular injury, thus exacerbating post-stroke neurological deficits. Indeed, stroke patients still suffer from debilitating neurocognitive deficits despite the advent of reperfusion therapies. This indicates a need for discovery of stroke therapeutics and/or development of new pharmacological strategies for neuroprotection that are both safe and effective; however, the clinical utility of such compounds is highly dependent upon efficient transport from systemic circulation into ischemic brain tissue. Indeed, the BBB possess several endogenous transporters that can be targeted to promote delivery of neuroprotective agents into the CNS. It is noteworthy that most studies on BBB transporters in stroke that have been published to date have primarily focused on transport of solutes involved in stroke pathogenesis such as ions and glucose. The next frontier of transporter biology will be to discern functional properties of transport proteins at the BBB that can be targeted to optimize CNS drug delivery. Examples of such uptake transporters include organic anion transporting polypeptides (OATPs in humans; Oatps in rodents). Of note, small molecule drugs that have neuroprotective properties and are known substrates for OATPs/Oatps include 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (i.e., statins). Data from preclinical and clinical stroke studies suggest that statins possess properties that render them effective as stroke therapeutics. Future development of neuroprotective treatment strategies for stroke with statins will depend upon an improved understanding of discrete BBB transport mechanisms that enable these drugs to achieve effective brain concentrations. Information derived from BBB transport studies can be extended to inform discovery of new drugs developed specifically for ischemic stroke treatment. An examination of the chemical properties of statins that enable these drugs to be specifically transported by OATPs/Oatps can inform structure-based drug design of such novel therapeutics. Identification of therapeutics that both confer beneficial effects in stroke and are substrates for endogenous BBB transporters presents a translational opportunity to advance stroke pharmacotherapy. Overall, endogenous transporters at the brain microvascular endothelium must be studied in detail to discern the optimal time course and the most effective routes of administration for neuroprotective drugs. Furthermore, a consideration of biological variables (i.e., age, sex, comorbid conditions such as obesity, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, etc.) that affect stroke outcomes should be incorporated into future experimentation to develop a better understanding of BBB transport mechanisms and, ultimately, improved stroke treatment paradigms.
    • Three-Dimensional Imaging Techniques for Biomedical Applications

      Liang, Rongguang; Li, Shaobai; Kang, Dongkyun; Sawyer, Travis (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      The pursuit of extended depth, higher resolution, and three-dimensional (3D) imaging capabilities has been a driving force in the field of biomedical imaging and clinical applications. By providing detailed volumetric representations of biological structures, 3D imaging modalities offer significant advantages over traditional 2D imaging methods, enabling unprecedented insights into the complex three-dimensional architecture and dynamics of biological systems. Chromatic confocal microscopy and Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) stand out as two techniques offering high-resolution, non-invasive 3D visualization of living tissues and organisms. Chromatic confocal microscopy utilizes longitudinal chromatic aberration to conduct depth scans, facilitating high-resolution 3D imaging of specimens. On the other hand, OCT, a non-invasive interferometric technique, relies on low-coherence interferometry to capture high-resolution depth images of tissues. OCT provides detailed 3D representations of tissue microstructures, making it a valuable tool in clinical disciplines such as ophthalmology, cardiology, and dermatology. In this dissertation, we concentrate on Chromatic confocal microscopy and Swept source OCT these two techniques and their applications. We first present two digital scanningchromatic confocal microscopes: DMD-based and MicroLED-based chromatic confocal microscopes that eliminate the need for mechanical scanning. Furthermore, we discuss system enhancements achieved through custom optical design, including the integration of freeform prism pairs and hyperchromatic objectives. These advancements enable higher resolution, extended depth imaging, and multifunctional imaging. In terms of SS-OCT, we demonstrate the development of a multimodal intraoral screening system for oral cancer. This system integrates bright field imaging, autofluorescence imaging, and Swept-source OCT, enabling multi-modalities of intraoral imaging. The optical design, mechanical design, and software architecture of this system are comprehensively discussed. The final integrated system and preliminary results will be presented.
    • “Remember, you’re a master teacher”: Counternarratives of Implementation Fidelity

      Vega, Desiree; Downs, Kade; Yoon, Jina; Kayi-Aydar, Hayriye (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      The current implementation fidelity narrative in education is one written in federal legislation(e.g., ESSA, 2015; IDEA, 2004) and peer-reviewed journals (e.g., Chu et al., 2020; Noell et al., 2014). While teachers represent a significant force for the implementation of evidence-based practices in schools, their experiences and wisdom are often excluded from the narrative — widening the gap between researchers and policymakers on one side and practitioners on the other. One way to close the gap is to begin including teacher voices in the narrative. In this qualitative dissertation I used a constructivist framework built on narrative inquiry (Clandinin & Connelly, 2004) and positioning theory (Davies & Harré, 1999) to generate counternarratives of implementation fidelity in school settings with five general education teachers in the United States. The lived experiences of these teachers reflect several systemic barriers that limit their ability to respond to student needs in a culturally responsive and timely manner, and represent several ways implementation fidelity as a process could be improved for teachers as well as students.
    • The Well-Prepared Marimba: An Exploration of Extended Techniques and Instrument Preparations in Marimba Repertoire

      Palter, Morris S.; Denham, Corey Daniel; Traut, Don; Rosenblatt, Jay (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Concert marimba repertoire is a musical innovation of the 20th Century. Though most of this repertoire uses standardized performance techniques, there is a distinct category calling for extended techniques and instrument preparations. This lecture-recital document will describe how extended techniques and preparations have shaped composition aesthetics of the 20th and 21st Centuries. Musical analysis will also be used to contextualize how composers have integrated extended techniques and preparations in marimba composition. The following works will be used to demonstrate a breadth of possibilities, Voice of Matsuri Drums by Keiko Abe, Blue Skin of the Sea by Tonia Ko, Scherzo by Lukas Ligeti, and Sketches for Eyes and Ridges by Gina Ryan.
    • We Hope You Are Well: The Co-Creation of Wellbeing by Individuals in Organizations

      Hilligoss, Brian; Wong, Elena Maria; Sawyer, Katina B.; Schilke, Oliver (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Organizations and individuals invest resources in supporting employee wellbeing, a trend that has intensified in recent years. Despite this increased emphasis on enhancing wellbeing, employees continue to vary in terms of the state of their wellbeing. To gain insight into how and why employee wellbeing statuses vary, I adopted an inductive approach to explore the diverse contributors to employee wellbeing outcomes. This exploration involved interviews with 57 employees at a single organization and uncovered a wide array of wellbeing facilitators, factors that support employee wellbeing, and wellbeing inhibitors, factors that are detrimental to employee wellbeing. I examined what employees identified as contributors to the state of their wellbeing and developed a theoretical framework outlining archetypes of employees that relate to high and low levels of wellbeing. Drawing on the interviews with participants who reported low and high wellbeing statuses, I examined contextual factors that contributed to employee wellbeing. Contributing to the body of work that examines how contextual factors impact employee wellbeing, I elucidated the role of historical comparison, finding that employees make comparisons between their current context to their historical contexts to validate their present state of wellbeing. In highlighting the role of the past to the present, I revealed how employees support themselves by trying to leverage coping skills developed in the past. As a result, existing skills act as reinforcing, compensatory, or ineffective contributors to their wellbeing. In highlighting the role of employee comparisons between their past context and their present, and the ways that coping skills may or may not support their wellbeing, I uncovered findings that may shape future research and organizational endeavors to support employee wellbeing.
    • Monetized Masters: Early Modern Japanese Literati and the Economy of Cultural Networks

      Schlachet, Joshua; Li, Jingyi; Miura, Takashi; Gregory, Scott; Hedberg, William (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      This dissertation studies the economic roles of early modern Japanese literati (Jpn. bunjin) in the nineteenth century and the historical interpretation of these literati in the early twentieth century through their engagement in popular cultural production, particularly centering calligraphy and painting gatherings (Jpn. shogakai). I argue that shogakai was a space of temporary freedom for early modern Japan’s popular cultural producers and consumers. During a time of class separation by the four-class structure of aristocrats-samurai-peasants-merchants in the Tokugawa period (1600-1868), shogakai was one of the few occasions where a performing master’s social status was overpowered by their cultural influence while a patron’s cash investment could determine new trends in cultural production. Everyone participating in the on-the-spot creation was remembered in popular fiction and playbills as a literatus. Yet after the gatherings ended, everyone returned to their assigned social role where the cultural producer’s autonomy was again confined by the symbolic power of the four-class system.Ultimately, through examples from shogakai and the popular cultural network, I argue that Japan’s literati were neither romantic figures of eremitism nor despicable creators of vulgar content. They grappled with negotiating their own identity in hierarchies of social class, knowledge, and cultural production in the turbulence of the nineteenth century, but eventually were turned into an elitized and romanticized concept to be used for Japan’s modern construction of cultural and national identity in an age of rising fascism.
    • Latine Labor and Legality: Examining Unconventional Oil and Gas Labor Regimes and Gendered Dynamics in the U.S. West

      Nelson, Lise; Luna Garcia, Wendy; Curley, Andrew; Marston, Sallie (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      This research uses in-depth semi-structured interviews, participant observation, and key informant insights in Wheatland, WY, to examine unconventional oil and gas (UOG) labor regimes and their associated their household dynamics in Latine immigrant families linked to this industry. Since the discovery of rich shale oil regions across the U.S., the expansion of unconventional oil and gas (UOG) has piqued scholars' interest. This increase of fossil fuel production has been associated with economic growth in oil-producing regions, but has also been implicated in negative infrastructural, environmental, and social impacts. Despite the range of research conducted by social scientists on UOG production in the U.S. West, few have played sustained attention to the recruitment and presence of Latine immigrant workers into the UOG industry. Drawing on feminist theories of social reproduction, this article explores how UOG labor regimes, ones predicated on the extended absences of men from their families, reshape household decision-making and gendered power dynamics within mixed-status Latine immigrant households.
    • Traditional Housing Solutions for the Navajo Nation

      Bernal, Sandra; Boyd, Kendall; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Gaxiola, Ivan (The University of Arizona., 2024-05)
      This capstone research examined to assess and explores the housing issues indigenous communities face to come up with solutions on how to meet their housing needs when it comes to designing a traditional home. Many Indigenous communities’ houses are very substandard as it can be very overcrowded, system deficiencies, or certain condition within the household. Not to mention the Navajo Nation being a large reservation as the demographic contributes to why it is difficult to have a comfortable income as their lack of jobs in the community, poverty, and no funding from government. When these causes happen, it leads to Indigenous families to not have a quality house and create more stress on families. To fix these issues, this research used literature review, secondary data from pilot study survey, storytelling (interview) and document analysis. The discussions and conclusions allowed to develop a Housing Inspection Deficiency Checklist and Traditional Housing solution diagram as toolkit for the Indigenous people. As well as the potential of what sustainable traditional housing can be on the Navajo Nation.
    • Food Waste at Disney Parks and Resorts

      Delgado, Daniella; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Bernal, Sandra; Wong, Kenny; Apanovich, Nataliya (The University of Arizona., 2024-05)
      This paper dives into the practices and impact of food waste at the Disney Parks and Resorts, with supporting information from regulations in a normal setting restaurant in the hospitality industry and Universal Parks and Resorts. Through an exploration of food waste data and sustainability initiatives, the paper highlights the economic, environmental, and social implications of food waste. It also discusses the importance of education and awareness in addressing this pressing issue. Using a mix of methods combining quantitative analysis and qualitative examination, we aim to uncover differences in how food waste is handled and what it means for the business, Casts, and Guests. Our findings show that there are big gaps between what is happening and what should be happening, pointing to the need for more education on sustainability. Why does this matter? Understanding how theme parks deal with food waste can give us an insight on how to improve food waste management in the hospitality industry around the world. By tackling this problem head-on and providing proper education, we can create a world where we waste less and utilize our resources efficiently.
    • Regulating Digital Health Care for the Cognitively Impaired

      Huber, Kathryn; Sklar, Tara; University of Arizona, James E. Rogers College of Law (American Health Law Association, 2024)
      Americans are living longer, and delivering high-quality, effective, and cost-efficient health care remains critically important, especially as the number of older adults with cognitive impairment increases. Relatedly, a growing number of older adults are preferring to “age in place” and receive care in their homes. This preference aligns with advances being made in digital health technologies (e.g., remote patient monitoring devices, telehealth) and Medicare coverage for in-home virtual health care services. However, efforts to integrate digital health care into the lives of older adults living with cognitive impairments present unique barriers and challenges due to their confused mental state or fluctuating capacity, which can limit their ability to provide meaningful informed consent; their vulnerability to privacy violations regarding their health data; their lack of digital health equity; difficulties operating the technology, navigating online platforms and applications; and effectively communicating with their providers. These challenges usually result in this particular demographic being far less likely to participate in the digital health ecosystem compared to their younger counterparts. This Article will address those challenges and their related regulatory and legal hurdles and will propose reforms for emerging models of digital health care that address the current shortcomings in caring for older adults with cognitive impairment.
    • A Secondary Analysis of Jackson et al. (2022): The Impact of Educational Placement for Students with Complex Support Needs

      Lansey, Kirsten R.; Jackson, Lewis; Agran, Martin; Ryndak, Diane; Jameson, J. Matt; The University of Arizona (SAGE Publications, 2024-05-27)
      The least restrictive environment (LRE) mandate has driven classroom placement decisions for the last five decades. It has been measured as the percentage of time students spend in general education contexts (i.e., Placement A: >80%; Placement B: 40-79%; Placement C: <40%). The mandate and its continuum of placements are predicated on the assumption that students can transition to less restrictive contexts, and that each placement will provide students with the skills needed to succeed in less restrictive contexts and, ultimately, in Placement A. Results from this descriptive analysis of survey responses from a sample of teachers and administrators of 98 elementary students with complex support needs indicate that less time in general education (Placements B and C) results in decreased access to single-grade classes, educator expertise, grade-aligned instructional materials, and general education curriculum. Furthermore, for most of the variables analyzed, the data suggest that Placement B is more closely aligned with Placement C than with Placement A, suggesting that it may function as a restrictive placement. We argue that current LRE implementation is resulting in placement and progress stagnation. To allow students with complex support needs to have inclusive and equitable learning opportunities, LRE must shift away from the concept of percentage of time in general education to requirements of student access to instruction on state-adopted grade-level general education standards within general education contexts and curriculum.
    • When the Earth Was New: Memory, Materiality and the Numic Ritual Life Cycle (Preprint Version)

      Ruuska, Alex (In Press, University of Utah Press, 2023-03-14)
      This book explores the contentious subject of Indigenous oral history in the Great Basin and a growing interest in oral traditions among archaeologists and anthropologists. When the Earth Was New considers the architecture of Numic place-based knowledge, interrogating traditional narratives that encode some of the earliest forms of scientific observation among diverse Indigenous communities describing a living sentient earth in the process of rebirthing herself. The author employs an interdisciplinaryapproach that identifies and evaluates Numic oral teachings relative to the place-based data available from ethnography, ethnohistory, archaeology, and geology. She invites the reader to consider the nature of contemporary and ancient Numic experiences, the profound possibilities of ancestral memory, the animistic worldview a sentient earth undergoing profound geological changes, Numic ethnogenesis, and the opportunities to explore potential convergences between science and indigenous ways of knowing. When considered in relation to both archaeological and geological processes, it may be possible to temporarily suspend our twenty first century notions, and for a moment, understand embodied perspectives. about When the Earth Was New.
    • Ground-based and Airborne Aerosol Studies Over Arid and Marine Regions

      Sorooshian, Armin; Ramírez-Andreotta, Mónica; Zeider, Kira Therese; Arellano, Avelino F., Jr.; Sáez, Avelino E.; Sullivan, Sylvia (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Aerosol particles have significant effects throughout the troposphere: they affect human health and safety primarily in the lower levels of the atmosphere and affect the Earth’s radiation balance and cloud formation at higher altitudes. There is a suite of methods to characterize horizontal and vertical compositions of aerosols across the globe, including surface monitoring, airborne data collected via aircraft field campaigns, spaceborne remote-sensors, and reanalysis models. This work focuses first on ground-based methodology of aerosol characterization, specifically through the use of community-engaged research, and second on the combination of airborne research methods to better understand aerosol-cloud-meteorology interactions. The first study used co-created community science data from a legacy industry-adjacent community in Arizona to determine the efficacy of plant leaves (foliar surfaces) to sample aerosol pollutants in ambient air, and by proxy, to serve as low-cost air quality monitors. Using spatial concentration characterization, enrichment factor calculations, and statistical and regression analyses, it was determined that foliar collection is a viable indicator of aerosol contamination with respect to outdoor settled dust, with sampling efficacy comparative to an accepted deposition sampling method. Dust particles laden with toxic elements/contaminants such as arsenic, lead, and cadmium, that have previously been found discharged into nearby soils, waterways, and the atmosphere near fence-line communities, were found in high concentrations compared to naturally occurring levels, which provided support for the research and implementation of low-cost air quality monitors for concerned communities. The second study continued the work from the previous co-created community science study, but was conducted across several Arizona communities, ascertaining the influence of plant family, leaf surface area, and sampling location on foliar collection efficacy. Statistical analyses using the Kruskal-Wallis test led to the conclusion that leaf surface area was the most influential factor for dust deposition sampling compared to the other factors considered. It was also determined that elements toxic to humans at high dosages and from repeated exposure, such as manganese, barium, and aluminum, that were observed in backyard soils were likely to have been transported from long-range sources rather than from local sources. The third study utilized in-situ data, such as aerosol and cloud droplet number concentrations (Na and Nd, respectively) and cloud water (CW) speciation, from six airborne missions carried out between July 2011 and September 2020 and based out of Marina, California, as well as data from space-borne remote sensors and global models. The goal of this study was to better understand the aerosol and cloud characteristics along the California coast during unusual periods of low troposphere southerly wind direction as compared to the region’s typical northerly flow pattern. Submicron Na and CW species representative of fine aerosol pollution (NO3- and non-sea salt (nss) SO42-) and shipping/continental emissions (V, oxalate, NH4+, Ni, and organic and elemental carbon, OC and EC, respectively) were found elevated during periods of southerly flow. Further, clouds were found to have elevated values of Nd and cloud optical thickness (COT), and reduced cloud droplet effective radius (re) during southerly flow conditions. The fourth and final study also utilized airborne in-situ data, on the coast opposite of the U.S. compared to the previous study, as part of the Aerosol Cloud meTeorology Interactions oVer western ATlantic Experiment (ACTIVATE). Important factors for aerosol and cloud characterization, particularly for low clouds, include the degree of coupling between the ocean’s surface and sub-cloud base of the atmospheric marine boundary layer (MBL). While previous studies had quantified coupling threshold values for liquid water potential temperature (θℓ) and water vapor mixing ratio (qt), these were with respect to subtropical subsidence regions home to major stratocumulus cloud decks, like off the U.S. west coast. For the east coast, where there is a variety of marine clouds, this study provided updated coupling thresholds for the northwest Atlantic using vertical profiles of θℓ and qt from 2020-2022 and validated through cloud water species concentrations and aerosol and atmospheric properties. The studies presented in this work illustrate the importance of varied research approaches in the pursuit of protecting human health and safety with respect to air quality. The first two studies utilized co-created community science research to build capacity and empower environmental justice communities in Arizona to address their environmental health concerns using phytotechnologies. The last two studies emphasized the complexities and challenges regarding aerosol-cloud interactions, specifically on both the east and west US coasts, with airborne field experiments. Despite the differences in subject matter and research methodology, the research in this work highlights the usefulness of partnering government-supported research campaigns with community-based research to create better solutions to air quality concerns.
    • Beyond Eating Behavior: Decoding the Role of Central Extended Amygdala PKC-delta Neurons in Energy Balance and Activity-Based Anorexia

      Cai, Haijiang; Schnapp, Wesley Ilana; Cowen, Stephen; Gothard, Katalin; Hoit, Jeannette; Teske, Jennifer (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a psychiatric disease characterized by abnormal eating behavior, self-starvation, intense fear of weight gain, and is often associated with excessive exercise. Despite extensive research, significant gaps persist in elucidating the precise neural mechanisms underlying development of AN. This dissertation addresses this gap by focusing on the role of protein kinase-C delta (PKC-) neurons within the central extended amygdala (EAc) in the development of activity-based anorexia (ABA), a common animal model for AN. Through a series of experiments employing multidisciplinary approaches, including behavioral assays, genetically-targeted manipulation, in vivo calcium imaging, neuronal tracing, and immunohistology, this dissertation reveals involvement of EAcPKC- neurons in ABA development and associated behaviors. Ablation of PKC- neurons in two nuclei of the EAc, the central amygdala nucleus (CeA) and bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BNST), in mice prevents the development of ABA, suggesting a critical role in the pathological progression of AN. Importantly, simultaneous ablation of PKC- neurons in both nuclei are required for consistent prevention, implying synergistic or additive dynamics for their function in regulating ABA. Furthermore, while presentation of food is associated with increased activity of these neurons as mice develop ABA, indicating a role in modulating the disrupted eating behavior phenotype, acutely silencing their activity with chemogenetic methods does not impede development of ABA or mitigate any phenotypes, suggesting a more nuanced mechanism. Additional experiments reveal other functions of EAcPKC- neurons in energy balance, beyond their previously established role in eating behavior and anorexigenic (i.e., appetite suppressing) signaling, shedding light on their potential contribution to modulating other metabolic behaviors. Specifically, acute activation of CeAPKC- increases locomotor behavior, demonstrating a role in energy expenditure. Furthermore, the ABA experiments and results from immunohistochemistry investigation point to a potential link between EAcPKC- neurons and circadian-based eating behavior. Ultimately, the findings in this dissertation not only deepen our understanding of AN’s neural circuit basis but also offer insights into novel functions of EAcPKC- neurons in energy homeostasis and mechanisms as to how they regulate phenotypical behaviors associated with AN, opening avenues for further exploration in the field of both ABA and EAc neural circuitry.
    • Off-Axis Three Mirror Anastigmat with an Integrated Primary and Tertiary Mirror

      Kim, Daewook; Pearce, Eric C.; Gold, Drew; Choi, Heejoo (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Space telescopes are indispensable tools for scientific missions. They offer unique insights into Earth-oriented studies and astronomical observations by measuring phenomena which are not always visible from the ground. Among telescope configurations, the three mirror anastigmat (TMA) is a commonlyutilized system due to its excellent ability to control aberrations over large field of views. While off-axis TMA systems remove the central obstruction, they often introduce challenges regarding opto-mechanical alignment, particularly with active, on-orbit systems. This thesis aims to address these challenges by discussing the development of the Monolithic Off-axis Three-mirror System (MOTS), whose primary and tertiary mirrors are formed with a single substrate. With a focal length of 2480 mm at f /6, the MOTS telescope demonstrates a diffraction-limited performance across its 1.2◦ x 0.5◦ field of view, with excellentcontrast for resolving fine details. The system is designed for 12 micron pixels and maintains a flat, uniform image plane with minimal distortion (≤0.19%). The monolithic mirror serves as a single reference surface during optical alignment, reducing the complexity to a two rigid-body system, and providing a non-degenerate solution to active alignment of the secondary mirror. Preliminary stray light analysis demonstrates uniform illumination (≥94%) with sharp attenuation beyond the field of view. Overall, the MOTS telescope presents an alternate solution for advancing space-based imaging by addressing challenges often encountered with off-axis systems.