Now showing items 1-20 of 105319

    • Beyond words: L2 writing teachers’ visual conceptualizations of ChatGPT in teaching and learning

      Xu, Wei; Tan, Xiao; Second Language Acquisition and Teaching, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2024-03-29)
      Since its inception, ChatGPT has been characterized by L2 writing teachers with various metaphors, such as a tool and a collaborator. Complemented with text-based metaphorical conceptualizations, this research brief contributes ten visual conceptualizations of ChatGPT in L2 writing pedagogy from L2 writing teachers who teach in US higher education. Four themes emerged from our analysis of these visual conceptualizations: ChatGPT as a (1) tool, (2) resource, (3) threat, and an (4) unknown entity. The visualizations help tease out the intricacies involved in the use of metaphorical representations of ChatGPT and provide a multidimensional picture of L2 writing teachers’ perceptions and attitudes towards the use of ChatGPT in L2 writing classrooms. This report concludes with an overview of the potential implications of applying visual metaphorical conceptualizations of ChatGPT to educational settings, such as raising L2 student writers’ awareness and fostering the development of their critical digital literacy.
    • Quantifying methane emissions from United States landfills

      Cusworth, Daniel H; Duren, Riley M; Ayasse, Alana K; Jiorle, Ralph; Howell, Katherine; Aubrey, Andrew; Green, Robert O; Eastwood, Michael L; Chapman, John W; Thorpe, Andrew K; et al. (American Association for the Advancement of Science, 2024-03-28)
      Methane emissions from solid waste may represent a substantial fraction of the global anthropogenic budget, but few comprehensive studies exist to assess inventory assumptions. We quantified emissions at hundreds of large landfills across 18 states in the United States between 2016 and 2022 using airborne imaging spectrometers. Spanning 20% of open United States landfills, this represents the most systematic measurement-based study of methane point sources of the waste sector. We detected significant point source emissions at a majority (52%) of these sites, many with emissions persisting over multiple revisits (weeks to years). We compared these against independent contemporaneous in situ airborne observations at 15 landfills and established good agreement. Our findings indicate a need for long-term, synoptic-scale monitoring of landfill emissions in the context of climate change mitigation policy.
    • Latinx Youth's Mental Health Needs and Socioeconomic Factors Associated with Service Utilization

      Giraldo-Santiago, Natalia; Bjugstad, Arlene; Cardoso, Jodi Berger; Chen, Tzuan A.; Brabeck, Kalina; López, Ruth M.; College of Education, Department of Educational Policy Studies and Practice, University of Arizona (Project MUSE, 2024-02-01)
      This study examined mental health needs and risk factors associated with service use among Latinx high school students in two cities in the United States. We explored how socioeconomic characteristics, school location, youth and parental nativity, and self-perceived clinical needs were associated with the odds of youths seeing a mental health provider. Data were collected from 306 Latinx youths during the 2018–19 school year. Most youths (78%) self-reported symptoms of anxiety, trauma, or depression above the clinical range. None of these clinical needs predicted service utilization. Youth experiencing less economic hardship and having a mother from South America were almost five times more likely to use services than their counterparts. Similarly, males and older respondents were more likely to be underserved than females and younger respondents. Implications to ensure equitable access to services among older, low-income Latinx youth, particularly those from Central America, the Caribbean, and Mexico, are discussed.
    • The Civic Education of Ignacio Bonillas: Revising Ambient Notions of Citizenship in the Arizona-Sonora Borderlands

      McMartin, Charles; University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2024-03-27)
      This article details the experiences of Ignacio Bonillas, one of the first Mexican students to graduate from Arizona’s territorial schools and explicates how those experiences impacted his perceptions of U.S. and Mexican citizenship. Bonillas’s story illustrates how definitions of citizenship in the Arizona-Sonora borderlands were permeable and dynamic before the era of Americanization and encourages teachers and students to interrogate the ways restrictive notions of citizenship are reproduced in public schools. This article goes on to argue for inviting students to access local archives and create case studies of figures whose experiences challenge the Americanized histories of their region.
    • Does auditor assurance of client prosocial activities affect subsequent reporter-auditor negotiations?

      Douthit, Jeremy D.; Kachelmeier, Steven J.; Van Landuyt, Ben W.; Dhaliwal-Reidy School of Accountancy, The University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2024-04-10)
      In two incentivized experiments, we investigate the potential for auditor assurance of prosocial activities akin to Environmental, Social, and Governance (ESG) initiatives to bias the initial positions and final outcomes of subsequent reporter-auditor negotiations. This possibility arises from the psychological theory of licensing, with a prosocial activity providing the motivation for licensing, while auditor assurance provides a perceived opportunity for licensing. We find that the combination of a preliminary prosocial activity by the reporter with auditor assurance of that activity leads reporters to specify more aggressive initial negotiation positions, although it does not result in more lenient initial positions by the auditor. The final outcomes of reporter-auditor negotiations are biased in the reporter's favor in our first experiment, in which auditor assurance of a prosocial reporter activity is of a social and collaborative nature. This result does not extend to our second experiment in which auditor assurance is not collaborative, although we still observe more aggressive reporters. Overall, our research identifies aggressive reporting as a potential unintended consequence of ESG assurance, especially when that assurance is of a more collaborative variety.
    • Braiding together Critical Race Feminista participatory action research: conceptual and methodological considerations

      López, Ruth M.; The University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2024-02-23)
      In this article, I discuss conceptual and methodological considerations for the design and implementation of Critical Race Feminista Participatory Action Research (Critical Race Feminista-PAR) projects in higher education. I share some theoretical considerations of Critical Race Feminista praxis and methodologies that have been made by scholars who bridge critical race theories and Chicana feminist epistemology and then offer considerations for areas of expansion for Critical Race Feminista methodology. I also provide an overview of the social justice and liberatory origins of PAR and examples of other “braided” approaches of PAR that help inform Critical Race Feminista-PAR. To illustrate the application of this methodology, I provide an example from a previous study I co-constructed along with Latina higher education staff, administrators, and students that had elements of Critical Race Feminista-PAR. This article has implications for how Critical Race Feminista-PAR can be used to address social problems in higher education and beyond.
    • Radical cyberfeminists as language planners: South Korea’s Womad

      Lee, Kathy; Yang, Sunyoung; Department of East Asian Studies, The University of Arizona (Informa UK Limited, 2024-03-13)
      In response to tumultuous gender relations in South Korea, many feminist and anti-feminist communities have increased their online presence since the 2010s. At the extreme end of this spectrum is the radical cyberfeminist community Womad. In this paper, we examine Womad’s online dictionary, which prescribes specific language to be used on their platform, which we interpret as an example of micro language planning. Our analysis of their dictionary reveals that similar to previous feminist language reforms around the world, Womad’s new words correct lexical asymmetries that present men as the norm and eliminate words that invoke patriarchal connotations. However, what distinguishes Womad’s language reform are their words that denigrate men, which sharply contrasts with linguistic anti-sexism. Womad’s separatist and consciousness-raising agenda is distinctly evident in their dictionary, and as a radical group, they are not motivated by widespread acceptance of their reform. Instead, their intention is to combat patriarchy by challenging existing gender norms and expanding the space for diverse feminisms through their radical approach. Specifically, Womad’s transgressive language serves as an important tool in achieving their goals. Due to policing by other users and administrators, Womad can ensure that their language planning efforts are maintained within their community.
    • Perceptions of Postsecondary Experiences and Supports That Advance the Personal Goals of Students With Extensive Support Needs

      Lansey, Kirsten R.; MacFarland, Stephanie Z. C.; Antia, Shirin D.; The University of Arizona (SAGE Publications, 2024-03-13)
      Inclusive postsecondary education (PSE) programs at institutions of higher education are emerging as opportunities for individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities (IDD), including those with extensive support needs (ESN), to progress toward their desired outcomes. This qualitative study aimed to understand the experiences and supports that current and recently graduated students in a dual enrollment nonresidential PSE program perceive as contributing to their self-directed employment, education, and social goals. Furthermore, this study explored how students’ perceived PSE affected their goal achievement and future lives. Findings from interviews with 10 participants with IDD, including eight with ESN, revealed that obtaining and maintaining competitive employment was negatively impacted by COVID-19, paid employment during PSE was not aligned with participants’ employment goals, internship experiences led to participants learning about their work preferences and changing their employment goals, and peer mentors impacted the achievement of participant’s employment, education, and social goals. Implications for practice and research and study limitations are described.
    • A novel computational platform to analyze left atrial voltage acquired from electroanatomic mapping

      Indik, Julia H; Altamirano Ufion, Alvaro; Whitaker, Bradford; Geyer, Travis; Balakrishnan, Mahesh; Butt, Khurram; Klewer, Jacob; Indik, Robert A; Hutchinson, Mathew D; Department of Mathematics, University of Arizona; et al. (Elsevier B.V., 2024-02-13)
    • Transcatheter Treatment of Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Compression by a Pseudoaneurysm in Tetralogy of Fallot

      Takamatsu, Chelsea; Ibrahim, Ramzi; Corban, Michel T; Klewer, Scott E; Seckeler, Michael D; Department of Medicine, University of Arizona Tucson; Sarver Heart Center, University of Arizona; Department of Pediatrics (Cardiology), University of Arizona (Elsevier Inc., 2023-07-05)
    • Glucocorticoid response to naturalistic interactions between children and dogs

      Gnanadesikan, Gitanjali E; Carranza, Elizabeth; King, Katherine M; Flyer, Abigail C; Ossello, Gianna; Smith, Paige G; Steklis, Netzin G; Steklis, H Dieter; Connelly, Jessica J; Barnett, Melissa; et al. (Academic Press Inc., 2024-03-13)
      Although research has shown that pets appear to provide certain types of social support to children, little is known about the physiological bases of these effects, especially in naturalistic contexts. In this study, we investigated the effect of free-form interactions between children (ages 8–10 years) and dogs on salivary cortisol concentrations in both species. We further investigated the role of the child-dog relationship by comparing interactions with the child's pet dog to interactions with an unfamiliar dog or a nonsocial control condition, and modeled associations between survey measures of the human-animal bond and children's physiological responses. In both children and dogs, salivary cortisol decreased from pre- to post-interaction; the effect was strongest for children interacting with an unfamiliar dog (compared to their pet dog) and for the pet dogs (compared to the unfamiliar dog). We found minimal evidence for associations between cortisol output and behaviors coded from video, but children scoring higher on survey measures of the human-animal bond exhibited the greatest reductions in cortisol when interacting with dogs. Self-reported loneliness was not related to cortisol or the human-animal bond, but measures of both loneliness and the human-animal bond were higher among children who participated after the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, relative to those who participated before the pandemic. This study builds on previous work that investigated potential stress-buffering effects of human-animal interaction during explicit stressors and demonstrates important physiological correlates of naturalistic interactions between children and dogs, similar to those that occur in daily life.
    • Analysis of Literacy Content in IEPs of Students With Complex Support Needs

      Zagona, Alison L.; Lansey, Kirsten R.; Kurth, Jennifer A.; Loyless, Roxanne; Stevens, Elizabeth A.; The University of Arizona (SAGE Publications, 2024-02-14)
      The Individualized Education Program (IEP) should include a summary of the student’s current skills and needs as well as annual goals that support their progress in the general education curriculum; however, IEPs for students with complex support needs may be missing required information. We investigated IEP goals and Present Levels of Academic Achievement and Functional Performance (PLAAFP) statements for 112 students with complex support needs in four educational placements to understand (a) similarities and differences in the literacy skills identified in IEP goals, (b) the extent to which students’ IEP goals aligned with the literacy skills identified in their PLAAFPs, and (c) how this alignment differed across placements. Results revealed some students were missing literacy-focused content in their IEP, very few K–2 students had goals focused on early literacy skills, few students in Grades 3 to 6 had expressive writing goals, and IEP goals were inconsistently aligned with PLAAFP statements.
    • Complete genome characterization of cacao leafroll virus, a newly described cacao-infecting polerovirus

      Adegbola, Raphael O; Keith, Cory V; Gutierrez, Osman; Goenaga, Ricardo; Brown, Judith K; School of Plant Sciences, The University of Arizona (Springer, 2024-03-23)
      The complete genome sequence of cacao leafroll virus (CaLRV; family Solemoviridae, genus Polerovirus) was determined by high-throughput sequencing of total RNA isolated from symptomatic cacao Theobroma cacao L. plants (n = 4). The CaLRV genome sequences ranged from 5,976 to 5,997 nucleotides (nt) in length and contained seven open reading frames (ORFs). Nucleotide and amino acid (aa) sequence comparisons showed that, among selected well-characterized poleroviruses, the CaLRV genome shared the highest nt sequence identity of 62% with that of potato leafroll virus (PLRV, NC_076505). A comparison of the predicted aa sequence of the CaLRV coat protein indicated that cotton leafroll dwarf virus (CLRDV, NC_014545) and melon aphid-borne yellows virus (MABYV, NC_010809) were the closest relatives, sharing 57% aa sequence identity. Bayesian phylogenetic analysis based on complete genome sequences showed that CaLRV grouped with well-characterized poleroviruses that cause diseases of cereal and vegetable crops. During the course of publishing this work, the nearly complete genome sequence of a member of the same polerovirus species, referred to as “cacao polerovirus” (OR605721), with which CaLRV shares 99% nt sequence identity, was reported.
    • Insight into glacio-hydrologicalprocesses using explainable machine-learning (XAI) models

      Hao, Huiqing; Hao, Yonghong; Li, Zhongqin; Qi, Cuiting; Wang, Qi; Zhang, Ming; Liu, Yan; Liu, Qi; Jim Yeh, Tian-Chyi; Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, The University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2024-03-11)
      The glacio-hydrological process is essential in the global water cycle but is complex and poorly understood. In this study, we couple the deep Shapley additive explanation (SHAP) with a long short-term memory (LSTM) model to construct a machine-learning (XAI) framework that describes the glacio-hydrological process in Urumqi Glacier No. 1, China. The XAI framework reveals 1) the dominant hydro-meteorological factors have a five-month lead time, and each factor has its own active time and degree of contribution; 2) the temperature and precipitation within the lead time dominate the process; 3) identifiable combination of the factors, instead of extreme events themselves, creates the extreme glacio-hydrological phenomena. Generally, the glacial meltwater replenishes the glacial stream runoff, which is influenced by many environmental factors. In particular, the runoff responds to the change in the glacier mass balance with hysteresis within five months. Overall, the temperature and precipitation within the lead time (4–5 months) dominate the runoff processes. This study quantifies the Contribution of each input in the glacio-hydrological process and provides valuable insight into the interaction of various hydro-meteorological factors.
    • The quality of teaching behaviors in learning environments of DHH students

      Rivera, M Christina; Catalano, Jennifer A; Branum-Martin, Lee; Lederberg, Amy R; Antia, Shirin D; Department of Disability and Psychoeducational Studies, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2023-11-17)
      Classrooms are complex learning environments, with instruction, climate, and teacher–student interactions playing important roles in students’ academic progress. To investigate the learning environments of deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students, we developed a new observational tool called the Quality of the Learning Environment-DHH rating scale (QLE-DHH) and rated 98 teachers of DHH students being educated in a range of classroom environments. The present study sought to (1) determine if the items on the QLE-DHH are good indicators of theoretically meaningful dimensions of classroom quality; (2) determine to what extent these dimensions predicted language and reading outcomes of DHH students; and (3) examine how teachers of DHH students were rated on the indicators of classroom quality. The findings suggested that the QLE-DHH has excellent structural validity. Ratings predicted student reading outcomes. Finally, the QLE-DHH was able to capture teachers’ strengths and skills in need of improvement. The QLE-DHH appears to hold promise for use in both research and teacher preparation programs.
    • Astrobiological Potential of Venus Atmosphere Chemical Anomalies and Other Unexplained Cloud Properties

      Petkowski, Janusz J.; Seager, Sara; Grinspoon, David H.; Bains, William; Ranjan, Sukrit; Rimmer, Paul B.; Buchanan, Weston P.; Agrawal, Rachana; Mogul, Rakesh; Carr, Christopher E.; et al. (Mary Ann Liebert Inc, 2024-04-10)
      Long-standing unexplained Venus atmosphere observations and chemical anomalies point to unknown chemistry but also leave room for the possibility of life. The unexplained observations include several gases out of thermodynamic equilibrium (e.g., tens of ppm O2, the possible presence of PH3 and NH3, SO2 and H2O vertical abundance profiles), an unknown composition of large, lower cloud particles, and the ''unknown absorber(s).'' Here we first review relevant properties of the venusian atmosphere and then describe the atmospheric chemical anomalies and how they motivate future astrobiology missions to Venus.
    • Simultaneous Drawing of Layered Trees

      Katheder, Julia; Kobourov, Stephen G.; Kuckuk, Axel; Pfister, Maximilian; Zink, Johannes; Department of Computer Science, University of Arizona (Springer Nature Singapore, 2024-02-29)
      We study the crossing-minimization problem in a layered graph drawing of planar-embedded rooted trees whose leaves have a given total order on the first layer, which adheres to the embedding of each individual tree. The task is then to permute the vertices on the other layers (respecting the given tree embeddings) in order to minimize the number of crossings. While this problem is known to be NP-hard for multiple trees even on just two layers, we describe a dynamic program running in polynomial time for the restricted case of two trees. If there are more than two trees, we restrict the number of layers to three, which allows for a reduction to a shortest-path problem. This way, we achieve XP-time in the number of trees.
    • Review of Open Software Bug Datasets

      Holek, Tomas; Bures, Miroslav; Cerny, Tomas; Systems and Industrial Engineering, University of Arizona (Springer Nature Switzerland, 2024-02-14)
      The localisation of the bug position in a source code and the prediction of which specific parts of a source code might be the cause of defects play an important role in maintaining software quality. Both approaches are based on applying information retrieval techniques and machine learning or deep learning methods. The prerequisite for using these approaches is the availability of a consistent bug dataset of sufficient size. This paper presents an overview of available public bug datasets and analyses their specific application areas. The paper also suggests possible future research directions in this field.
    • Pattern-Reconfigurable, Circularly Polarized, High-Gain, Archimedean Spiral Antenna Array for Long-distance, Wide-Coverage RFID Inventorying

      Yi, Da; Zhang, Ren-Long; Tang, Ming-Chun; Fu, Jing-Feng; Li, Yao; Li, Xing-Xing; Zhao, Huapeng; Ziolkowski, Richard W.; Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, The University of Arizona (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE), 2024-03-20)
      A low-cost, pattern-reconfigurable, circularly polarized, high-gain, radio-frequency identification (RFID) reader antenna array is presented. It is a 2 × 2 array whose elements are based on an innovative Archimedean spiral design. A 4-way power divider feed network with switchable delay lines is designed that enables reconfiguring the radiation patterns of the array. Because of its high realized gain and nine reconfigurable states, the developed reader antenna can be applied in long-distance, wide-coverage RFID inventorying. The fabricated prototype, with dimensions 1.15 × 1.15 × 0.07 λL3 at 920 MHz, achieves a measured axial-ratio (AR) fractional bandwidth of 4.6%, and a peak realized gain (RG) of 10.5 dBic (12 dBic without the feed network). The RG of its reconfigurable patterns is greater than 6 dBic within θ = 0±45for all azimuth angles. It was also tested in an outdoor range as the reader antenna for a practical RFID system. The maximum read distance was 22.3 m.
    • Cumulative impacts in environmental justice: Insights from economics and policy

      Bakkensen, Laura A.; Ma, Lala; Muehlenbachs, Lucija; Benitez, Lina; School of Government and Public Policy, University of Arizona; Department of Agricultural and Resource Economics, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2024-03-07)
      Disparities in health and socioeconomic well-being are a result of the cumulative impacts from multiple coinciding environmental, health, and social stressors. Addressing cumulative impacts is seen as a crucial step toward environmental justice (EJ). Using the case of the United States, we compare different methods to operationalize the concept for real-world application. We empirically demonstrate the extent to which non-White and low-income neighborhoods are subject to a wide array of burdens and how these burdens are reflected in national EJ indices and housing prices. We find that non-White and low-income neighborhoods are correlated with measures of multiple environmental burdens and social stressors but correlate to a lesser extent with natural disaster risk. Two existing EJ indices are only moderately correlated and more correlated with low-income status than with percent non-White. Models that employ the housing market for benefits estimation may fail to capture preferences to avoid multiple stressors due to issues including data availability and market frictions, such as discrimination. Finally, we highlight the challenges in cumulative impacts analysis for research and policy-making.