Now showing items 1-20 of 91484

    • CEnR Community Engaged Research

      Frazier, Stacy; Florida International University (University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2021)
    • Climate Mitigation for Arid Region Vineyard

      Brown, Waverly; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05)
      The global wine industry takes up to 7.4 million hectares (18.3 million acres) of land worldwide (“Leading Countries in Global”). The climate, terrain, and soil composition are major determining factors of the quality of wine produced. Most of the wine grapes produces are found within Mediterranean climates; however, the amount of arid to semi-arid region vineyards has increased (Vukicevich). The biodiverse hotspots that contain the proper growing parameters for grape growing are at risk due to climate change (Hannah). The current regions that could support viticulture reduce 25% to 73%, with projects being up to 62% crop decline by 2050 (Hannah). Increased temperatures, frequent storms (hail and frost included), and varietal loss were the main concerns reported (Callaghan). Climate change impact reduction within arid region vineyards, mitigation efforts must be applied by vintners or with the interaction of local government conversation programs or tax credits. This study provides a review of viticulture within arid regions through an assessment of current climate change impacts and mitigation efforts, local interviews with Arizona vintners to understand which areas are most vulnerable, which mitigation activities are used, an analysis of legislation and government aid to increase adaptation practices within arid region vineyards. It found that local vintners reported 20%-30% crop loss in 2020 due to hail storms (Callaghan). Not only is crop loss a significant result of climate change, but the varietals that survive the thermal stress and lack of precipitation on-site will also result in a reduction of wine quality and vine longevity (Cardell). Both existing literature and local vintners report hail damage as the most critical production risk to their crop yield. Mitigation efforts were successful on a site-by-site basis. Neighboring vineyards reported varied responses in the peak vulnerability of their fruit farming (e.g., cover crop, soil amendments, increased temperatures, hail management, varietal loss, varietal shifting, spatial diversification). However, tac credits, policies, or education on these hazards have room for improvement**. To increase climate mitigation in arid region vineyards, government agencies must anticipate the indirect effects of climate change on the wine industry and respond with vintners to emphasize agricultural adaptation and conservation action.
    • Finding a Place to Plug: A Review of Factors Influencing Optimal Electric Vehicle Charger Locations

      Newman, Taira; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-10)
      This paper explores the factors that should be considered when selecting a new location to place an Electric Vehicle (EV) charger. To increase the confidence in EV driving ranges and encourage the adoption of EVs the supporting infrastructure will have to rise to meet demand. Charging stations need to be optimized to account for driver preferences with regards to location and rate of charge. Variables such as proximity to trafficked routes and short wait times can attract drivers looking to recharge. The implementation of renewable energy to power EV charging can reduce the strain on the grid and lower energy costs while enticing drivers to use ‘greener’ stations. By understanding common characteristics of EVs drivers and identifying populations with these same traits’, stakeholders can target potential markets for successful projects. Using major findings of current EV studies and a dataset of existing EV locations in Tucson, Arizona, it is possible to determine that the stated research supports the existing data. Keywords: Electric Vehicles, EV Charging, Renewables
    • Motivations For Volunteering

      Imblum, Nicholas; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-11)
      This study explored what motivates a person volunteer, how they feel when doing so, and how we can encourage more people to volunteer to incentivize them to do so to benefit the community and themselves. People completed a questionnaire to understand what motivated people to volunteer. The number of responses were limited but gave enough information to establish trends. Through the answers from the questionnaire, it was determined that people who volunteer feel better afterwards and are likely influenced by seeing or having a friend do it. These findings are consistent with other studies. Having people share their experiences with friends may help increase rates of volunteerism.
    • Foraging in Tucson's Parks: Interest, Barriers, and Opportunities

      Ortez, Paola; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05)
      This paper considers the negative impact of reducing green spaces in cities on people-nature relationships and how urban foraging can help bridge that gap using Tucson, Arizona, as a case. All park policies, laws, and regulations at both city and state scales and laws that affect trees lining streets are reviewed. A content analysis was performed with questions relating to the following barriers to foragers: behavioral restrictions, management practices, and safety concerns. In addition, University of Arizona students were surveyed to gauge interest in an edible city initiative in Tucson, Arizona, and an interview with an urban land planner gave further insight into the design aspect of incorporating edible landscaping in a city. It was concluded that the language in laws that affect public parks, state parks, and streets is restrictive to foraging practices, with the common theme being that people should not be interacting with vegetation in parks. Moreover, student surveys showed interest in foraging, especially for educational purposes and alleviating food insecurity. It is concluded that for Tucson to start a city-wide edible city initiative, the legal barriers must be addressed first.
    • Food Deserts & Multifamily Greenhouse Design

      Bazua, Tiburcio Jr; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-04)
      World hunger, global climate change and human population growth provides the need to reinvent the built environment and the agriculture industry by combining both in a sustainable manner. This research project explores the challenges and provides clarity on growing food indoors with recycled rainwater. While simultaneously providing insights into the aspects of net-zero energy structures and their designs in the missing middle housing sector. The proposed eco-plex building can support 845 crops while recycling 88% of all gray water, saving 146,000 gallons of water per year.
    • Strategies to Create and Maintain a ‘Sense of Place’: Addressing Developmental Impacts That Have Resulted in Gentrification Through Time

      McClean, Kayla; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Daughtrey, Cannon; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-06)
      The purpose of this study is to address the impacts of development/redevelopment that have resulted in gentrification and community displacement throughout history. Upon analysis of the impacts of historical development policies, it was found that prior policies and strategies exacerbated effects such as gentrification and displacement. However, through examining two case studies and a participatory survey, solutions to developmental impacts can be drastically improved through participatory planning and inclusion of existing residents. The conclusions propose strategies that have successfully reduced adverse impacts and set up avenues for future research and policy to continue these successes.
    • Applying Design Improvement Guidelines to Bus Stops in Tucson, AZ

      Loh, Isabelle; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-05)
      Public transit is a complex system with various factors that affect its service and use, such as regional geography, socioeconomic factors, land uses, and demographic characteristics. This paper aims to only examine and discuss the role of design in the public transit experience and apply more contemporary approaches of design that goes beyond traditional functionality at bus stops. The topic of bus stop design is significant because previous studies have shown that design plays an important role in maintaining and increasing ridership by improving public perception of transit. Improvements in the immediate physical urban environment can also encourage other modes of active transportation. Through an analysis of preliminary pilot study data and an in-depth literature review into the role, components, and techniques of bus stop design, feasible approaches of design are extracted and applied to local bus stop sites in Tucson, Arizona. Beyond implementation, this paper hopes to convey that bus stop improvements should be approached with moderation—considering what is truly needed based on ridership volume, price point, availability of space, technological advancements, or other extraneous factors. This study ultimately is of the view that the bus stop is a complex yet rarely studied space full of opportunity and hopes that novel approaches in design will take advantage of said opportunities to turn transit zones into coveted community spaces rather than zones of lower value.
    • An Alternative Approach to a Achieve Water Resiliency

      Anderson, Jack; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-10)
      This case study of Auckland, New Zealand, examines an alternative method of water supply. Centralized water utility networks supply the majority of water to all municipal sectors. Increased population and an outdated and failing distribution system mean water shortages and restrictions are becoming more frequent occurrences for the cities around the world. The uncertainty of water resiliency must be brought into question regarding the future supply of water for Aucklander’s who are becoming increasingly subject to restrictions placed on water use. This study looks at rainwater harvesting as an alternative method of water supply to the failing centralized system. Water supply, obtained from flow data provided by the utility, indicate seasonal water use patterns. GIS analysis of each distribution zone in Auckland provides a clear analysis of each structure’s roof area. Runoff Data compiled from 70,834 structures suggests that runoff from precipitation events would be sufficient to fully replace centralized supply in months of higher rainfall. Partial offsets of ≥ 75% were also simulated in 5 of the 7 distribution zones studied. The correlation between roof area + runoff produced and water supplied from the utility is also examined to determine the best zone for implementing this alternative approach.
    • Better Military Housing through Sustainable Building

      Buchele, Shannon; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-10)
      Significant issues have come to public light in the past three years regarding privatized military housing. Inefficient design and building practices, combined with poor management and maintenance have contributed to unsatisfactory energy performance in houses and significant health, life, and safety concerns for military families. However, sustainable building practices can be utilized to improve the overall function and living conditions for our military members and their families. This capstone collected data through a literature review, resident survey, and a case study to understand the scope of issues that military families face while living in privatized housing. Recommendations based on these results point toward a more sustainable future for military housing that could help improve living conditions and welfare for military families.
    • Planting the Seed: How Urban Agriculture Grows a Stronger Community

      Kramer, Sean; Crawford, Teja Lee; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05-08)
      Urbanization, food miles, and food deserts are all factors that call for a reconstruction of the way we think about food. This report examines three potential methods of urban agriculture that can be used to create a more dynamic food system. This is done first through a literature review that examines three main concerns of urban agriculture: the benefits to the community, lack of space, and need for government involvement. Each method is then explored through a case study. Peri-urban agriculture is looked at in the Greater Melbourne area. Traditional agriculture is examined through Seattle’s P- Patch system of community gardens. Finally, innovative urban agriculture is seen in New York’s collection of controlled environment farms.
    • Food Security in Nepal: Improving Food and Nutrition Security

      Heard, Evan; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture; Iuliano, Joey (The University of Arizona., 2021-05)
      This paper assesses the lack of food security and the high level of poverty within Nepal. It will look at what factors influence these poor living conditions through research and data analysis. Data will illustrate the levels of improper nutrition and poverty compared to food production and supply throughout Nepal. Additionally, data will present information on Nepal’s main commodities. With this information, solutions focusing on the issue of food security and poverty will be constructed. Furthermore, crops with the potential to provide economic and nutritional benefits to Nepal’s communities will be identified and assessed. Ultimately, this paper looks for potential strategies for improving the poor conditions within the rural communities of Nepal.
    • Improving Community Development Through Sustainability and Affordable Sustainable Housing

      Robinson, Jonathan; College of Architecture, Planning and Landscape Architecture (The University of Arizona., 2021-05)
      Sustainability is one of the most discussed topics in the world. Sustainability innovation and principles are immeasurable and are remarkably effective if, and when applied correctly. Such principles can impact governmental decisions making on national, state, and local levels. The values of sustainability can always be improved and shared among everyone and not just those with the economic resource to afford its techniques. The objective of this study is to investigate the importance of improving sustainable practices in low-income communities while creating affordable housing. This study can be achieved with the use gathered resources, data analysis, interpersonal surveys. At the conclusion of this study, we should find that investing in sustainable communities and affordable housing has both environmental and economic growth benefit all classes of people with enjoy.
    • How does the pre-treatment of landfill leachate impact the performance of O and O/UVC processes?

      Gomes, Ana I; Souza-Chaves, Bianca M; Park, Minkyu; Silva, Tânia F C V; Boaventura, Rui A R; Vilar, Vítor J P; Department of Chemical & Environmental Engineering, University of Arizona (Elsevier Ltd, 2021-03-29)
      In this study, O3 and O3/UVC processes were evaluated for the treatment of landfill leachate after biological nitrification/denitrification, coagulation, or their combinations. The O3-driven stage efficiency was assessed by the removal of color, organic matter (dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and chemical oxygen demand (COD)), and biodegradability increase (Zahn-Wellens test). Also, fluorescence excitation-emission matrix (EEM) and size exclusion chromatography coupled with OC detector (SEC-OCD) analysis were carried out for each strategy. The bio-nitrified-leachate (LN) was not efficiently mineralized during the O3-driven processes since the high nitrites content consumed ozone rapidly. In turn, carbonate/bicarbonate ions impaired the oxidation of the bio-denitrified-leachate (LD), scavenging hydroxyl radicals (HO•) and inhibiting the O3 decomposition. For both bio-leachates, only O3/UVC significantly enhanced the effluent biodegradability (>70%), but COD legal compliance was not reached. EEM and SEC-OCD results revealed differences in the organic matter composition between the nitrified-coagulated-leachate (LNC) and denitrified-coagulated-leachate (LDC). Nonetheless, the amount of DOC and COD removed per gram of ozone was similar for both. Cost estimation indicates the O3-driven stage as the costliest among the treatment processes, while coagulation substantially reduced the cost of the following ozonation. Thus, the best treatment train strategy comprised LDC (with methanol addition for denitrification and coagulated with 300 mg Al3+/L, without pH adjustment), followed by O3/UVC (transferred ozone dose of 2.1 g O3/L and 12.2 kJUVC/L) and final biological oxidation, allowed legal compliance for direct discharge (for organic and nitrogen parameters) with an estimated cost of 8.9 €/m3 (O3/UVC stage counting for 6.9 €/m3).
    • Worship: bowing down in the service of God

      Levi, Avital Hazony; Department of Philosophy, University of Arizona (Cambridge University Press (CUP), 2021-04-05)
      Philosophers commonly assume that worship is a universal attitude. Two major approaches see worship as a sui generis attitude or as the specific attitude of respect. This article criticizes the universal assumption and defines worship as a ritual that shapes a person in acquiring the attitude considered appropriate in relating to a superior such as God. Religions differ in their rituals of worship because they disagree on what this appropriate attitude is. This claim is demonstrated by distinguishing the Hebrew Bible's form of worship as bowing down. Biblical worship is shown to be political, forming the worshipper into a loyal servant of God as king. This form of worship is argued to be fundamentally ethical because it teaches that the individual's relationship with God supervenes on human relationships.
    • Direct interaction of the ATP-sensitive K+ channel by the tyrosine kinase inhibitors imatinib, sunitinib and nilotinib

      Fröbom, Robin; Berglund, Erik; Aspinwall, Craig A.; Lui, Weng-Onn; Nilsson, Inga-Lena; Larsson, Catharina; Bränström, Robert; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry and Department of Biomedical Engineering, University of Arizona (Elsevier BV, 2021-06)
      The ATP-regulated K+ channel (KATP) plays an essential role in the control of many physiological processes, and contains a ATP-binding site. Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) are commonly used drugs, that primarily target ATP-binding sites in tyrosine kinases. Herein, we used the patch-clamp technique to examine the effects of three clinically established TKIs on KATP channel activity in isolated membrane patches, using a pancreatic β-cell line as a KATP channel source. In excised inside-out patches, the activity of the KATP channel was dose-dependently inhibited by imatinib with half-maximal concentration of approximately 9.4 μM. The blocking effect of imatinib was slow and reversible. No effect of imatinib was observed on either the large (KBK) or the small (KSK) conductance, Ca2+-regulated K+ channel. In the presence of ATP/ADP (ratio 1) addition of imatinib increased channel activity approximately 1.5-fold. Sunitinib and nilotinib were also found to decrease KATP channel activity. These findings are compatible with the view that TKIs, designed to interact at the ATP-binding pocket on the tyrosine receptor, also interact at the ATP-binding site on the KATP channel. Possibly, this might explain some of the side effects seen with TKIs.
    • High-resolution spectroscopy of SN 2017hcc and its blueshifted line profiles from post-shock dust formation

      Smith, Nathan; Andrews, Jennifer E; Steward Observatory, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2020-10-09)
      SN 2017hcc was remarkable for being a nearby and strongly polarized superluminous Type IIn supernova (SN). We obtained high-resolution Echelle spectra that we combine with other spectra to investigate its line-profile evolution. All epochs reveal narrow P Cygni components from pre-shock circumstellar material (CSM), indicating an axisymmetric outflow from the progenitor of 40-50 km s−1. Broad and intermediate-width components exhibit the classic evolution seen in luminous SNe IIn: symmetric Lorentzian profiles from pre-shock CSM lines broadened by electron scattering at early times, transitioning at late times to multicomponent, irregular profiles coming from the SN ejecta and post-shock shell. As in many SNe IIn, profiles show a progressively increasing blueshift, with a clear flux deficit in red wings of the intermediate and broad velocity components after day 200. This blueshift develops after the continuum luminosity fades, and in the intermediate-width component, persists at late times even after the SN ejecta fade. In SN 2017hcc, the blueshift cannot be explained as occultation by the SN photosphere, pre-shock acceleration of CSM, or a lopsided explosion of CSM. Instead, the blueshift arises from dust formation in the post-shock shell and in the SN ejecta. The effect has a wavelength dependence characteristic of dust, exhibiting an extinction law consistent with large grains. Thus, SN 2017hcc experienced post-shock dust formation and had a mildly bipolar CSM shell, similar to SN 2010jl. Like other superluminous SNe IIn, the progenitor lost around 10 M☉ due to extreme eruptive mass-loss in the decade before exploding. © 2020 The Author(s)
    • Eigenspectra: a framework for identifying spectra from 3D eclipse mapping

      Mansfield, Megan; Schlawin, Everett; Lustig-Yaeger, Jacob; Adams, Arthur D; Rauscher, Emily; Arcangeli, Jacob; Feng, Y Katherina; Gupta, Prashansa; Keating, Dylan; Stevenson, Kevin B; et al. (Oxford University Press, 2020-10-15)
      Planetary atmospheres are inherently 3D objects that can have strong gradients in latitude, longitude, and altitude. Secondary eclipse mapping is a powerful way to map the 3D distribution of the atmosphere, but the data can have large correlations and errors in the presence of photon and instrument noise. We develop a technique to mitigate the large uncertainties of eclipse maps by identifying a small number of dominant spectra to make them more tractable for individual analysis via atmospheric retrieval. We use the eigencurves method to infer a multiwavelength map of a planet from spectroscopic secondary eclipse light curves. We then apply a clustering algorithm to the planet map to identify several regions with similar emergent spectra. We combine the similar spectra together to construct an 'eigenspectrum' for each distinct region on the planetary map. We demonstrate how this approach could be used to isolate hot from cold regions and/or regions with different chemical compositions in observations of hot Jupiters with the James Webb Space Telescope (JWST). We find that our method struggles to identify sharp edges in maps with sudden discontinuities, but generally can be used as a first step before a more physically motivated modelling approach to determine the primary features observed on the planet. © 2020 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.
    • Combinatorial Biosynthesis of Sulfated Benzenediol Lactones with a Phenolic Sulfotransferase from Fusarium graminearum PH-1

      Xie, Linan; Xiao, Dongliang; Wang, Xiaojing; Wang, Chen; Bai, Jing; Yue, Qun; Yue, Haitao; Li, Ye; Molnár, István; Xu, Yuquan; et al. (American Society for Microbiology, 2020-11-25)
      Total biosynthesis or whole-cell biocatalytic production of sulfated small molecules relies on the discovery and implementation of appropriate sulfotransferase enzymes. Although fungi are prominent biocatalysts and have been used to sulfate drug-like phenolics, no gene encoding a sulfotransferase enzyme has been functionally characterized from these organisms. Here, we identify a phenolic sulfotransferase, FgSULT1, by genome mining from the plant-pathogenic fungus Fusarium graminearum PH-1. We expressed FgSULT1 in a Saccharomyces cerevisiae chassis to modify a broad range of benzenediol lactones and their nonmacrocyclic congeners, together with an anthraquinone, with the resulting unnatural natural product (uNP) sulfates displaying increased solubility. FgSULT1 shares low similarity with known animal and plant sulfotransferases. Instead, it forms a sulfotransferase family with putative bacterial and fungal enzymes for phase II detoxification of xenobiotics and allelochemicals. Among fungi, putative FgSULT1 homologues are encoded in the genomes of Fusarium spp. and a few other genera in nonsyntenic regions, some of which may be related to catabolic sulfur recycling. Computational structure modeling combined with site-directed mutagenesis revealed that FgSULT1 retains the key catalytic residues and the typical fold of characterized animal and plant sulfotransferases. Our work opens the way for the discovery of hitherto unknown fungal sulfotransferases and provides a synthetic biological and enzymatic platform that can be adapted to produce bioactive sulfates, together with sulfate ester standards and probes for masked mycotoxins, precarcinogenic toxins, and xenobiotics.IMPORTANCE Sulfation is an expedient strategy to increase the solubility, bioavailability, and bioactivity of nutraceuticals and clinically important drugs. However, chemical or biological synthesis of sulfoconjugates is challenging. Genome mining, heterologous expression, homology structural modeling, and site-directed mutagenesis identified FgSULT1 of Fusarium graminearum PH-1 as a cytosolic sulfotransferase with the typical fold and active site architecture of characterized animal and plant sulfotransferases, despite low sequence similarity. FgSULT1 homologues are sparse in fungi but form a distinct clade with bacterial sulfotransferases. This study extends the functionally characterized sulfotransferase superfamily to the kingdom Fungi and demonstrates total biosynthetic and biocatalytic synthetic biological platforms to produce unnatural natural product (uNP) sulfoconjugates. Such uNP sulfates may be utilized for drug discovery in human and veterinary medicine and crop protection. Our synthetic biological methods may also be adapted to generate masked mycotoxin standards for food safety and environmental monitoring applications and to expose precarcinogenic xenobiotics.
    • Concordance cosmology?

      Park, Youngsoo; Rozo, Eduardo; Department of Physics, University of Arizona (Oxford University Press, 2020-09-01)
      We propose a new intuitive metric for evaluating the tension between two experiments, and apply it to several data sets. While our metric is non-optimal, if evidence of tension is detected, this evidence is robust and easy to interpret. Assuming a flat Lambda cold dark matter (ΛCDM) cosmological model, we find that there is a modest 2.2σ tension between the Dark Energy Survey (DES) Year 1 results and the Planck measurements of the cosmic microwave background. This tension is driven by the difference between the amount of structure observed in the late-time Universe and that predicted from fitting the Planck data, and appears to be unrelated to the tension between Planck and local estimates of the Hubble rate. In particular, combining DES, baryon acoustic oscillations, big bang nucleosynthesis, and supernovae measurements recover a Hubble constant and sound horizon consistent with Planck, and in tension with local distance-ladder measurements. If the tension between these various data sets persists, it is likely that reconciling all current data will require breaking the flat ΛCDM model in at least two different ways: one involving new physics in the early Universe, and one involving new late-time Universe physics. © 2020 The Author(s) Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Royal Astronomical Society.