Now showing items 21-40 of 97613

    • Rapid photolithographic fabrication of high density optical interconnects using refractive index contrast polymers

      Frish, J.I.; Kleine, T.S.; Himmelhuber, R.; Showghi, S.; Nishant, A.; Kim, K.-J.; Jiang, L.; Martin, K.P.; Brusberg, L.; Pau, S.; et al. (Optica Publishing Group (formerly OSA), 2022)
      We have developed new polymer optical interconnect materials that we termrefractive index contrast (RIC) polymers that are ideally suited to a wide variety of photonic interconnect applications as the refractive index can be tuned over the range of n = 1.42 to 1.56, while index contrast Δn can be precisely tuned through composition and ultraviolet exposure; the waveguides can be directly patterned in dry films with no wet or dry etching processes required. RIC polymer interconnects thus have the ability to access numerous photonic platforms, including silicon photonic chips, ion-exchange (IOX) glass optical substrates, and optical fiber arrays. We demonstrate for the first time efficient single-mode polymer interconnect fabrication via a maskless lithography approach that exhibits low loss adiabatic coupling (∼1.5dB at 1550nm) to IOX waveguides through the formation of grayscale tapers. © 2022 Optica Publishing Group.
    • Overcoming mass transfer limitations in cross-linked polyethyleneimine-based adsorbents to enable selective CO2 capture at ambient temperature

      Hamdy, L.B.; Gougsa, A.; Chow, W.Y.; Russell, J.E.; García-Díez, E.; Kulakova, V.; Garcia, S.; Barron, A.R.; Taddei, M.; Andreoli, E.; et al. (Royal Society of Chemistry, 2022)
      New self-supported polyamine CO2 adsorbents are prepared by cross-linking branched polyethyleneimine (PEI) with 2,4,6-tris-(4-bromomethyl-3-fluoro-phenyl)-1,3,5-triazine (4BMFPT). Controlling the degree of cross-linking to ensure abundant free amine functionalities while maintaining a structure conducive to efficient mass transfer is key to accessing high CO2 adsorption and fast kinetics at ambient temperature. The polyamine-based adsorbent, PEI-4BMFPT, 10 : 1 (R), is composed of spherical particles up to 3 μm in diameter and demonstrates fast CO2 uptake of 2.31 mmol g−1 under 1 atm, 90% CO2/Ar at 30 °C. Its CO2/N2 selectivity, predicted by the ideal adsorbed solution theory is 575, equalling that of highly selective metal-organic frameworks. Based on humidified thermogravimetric analysis, it was observed that the presence of water promotes CO2 uptake capacity of 10 : 1 (R) to 3.27 mmol g−1 and results in strong chemisorption; likely by formation of ammonium carbonate and bicarbonate species. It is observed that CO2 uptake enhancement is highly subject to relative humidity and CO2 partial pressure conditions. When adsorption conditions combined low temperatures with low partial pressure CO2, 10 : 1 (R) showed reduced uptake. Tested under breakthrough conditions representative of post-combustion conditions, at 75% RH and 40 °C, CO2 uptake was reduced by 83% of the dry adsorption capacity. This body of work further advances the development of support-free CO2 adsorbents for ambient temperature applications and highlights the drastic effect that relative humidity and CO2 partial pressure have on uptake behaviour. © 2022 RSC
    • Fruit, Vegetable, and Physical Activity Guideline Adherence and Metabolic Syndrome in El Banco por Salud

      Standage-Beier, C.S.; Bakhshi, B.; Parra, O.D.; Soltani, L.; Spegman, D.J.; Molina, P.; Pereira, E.; Landes, L.; Mandarino, L.J.; Kohler, L.N.; et al. (MDPI, 2022)
      Adherence to dietary and physical activity recommendations has been associated with reductions in morbidity and mortality. The association between baseline adherence to fruit, vegetable, and physical activity guidelines and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in El Banco por Salud (El Banco) was examined. El Banco is a wellness biobank for Latino individuals affiliated with partnered Federally Qualified Health Centers in southern Arizona. Study participants (n = 972) were 65% female, 62.3% foreign-born, 56.3% obese, 29.2% food insecure, and with an average age of 51.3 years. Adherence scores were developed using baseline questionnaires for fruits and vegetable consumption and self-reported physical activity. Adherence was low in those fully meeting guidelines for fruit, vegetable, and physical activity at 14.6%, 37.5%, and 23.5%, respectively. Roughly 65% (n = 630) had ≥3 cardiometabolic risk factors. Large waist circumference was the most prevalent risk factor at 77.9%. Adherence to physical activity recommendations differed by MetS status with 32.8% without MetS reporting ≥150 min of physical activity per week compared to 18.5% in those with MetS (p < 0.001). There were no significant associations with adherence to any guidelines and MetS in the fully adjusted model. Overall, in this sample guideline adherence was low and the cardiometabolic risk factors prevalence was high. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
    • Genome Sequences of Marichromatium gracile HOL-1 and Its Purple Photosynthetic Coisolate, Afifella sp. H1R

      Kyndt, J.A.; Dubey, S.; Frazier, N.; Meyer, T.E.; Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, The University of Arizona (American Society for Microbiology, 2022)
      We sequenced the genomes of both the purple sulfur gammaproteobacterium Marichromatium gracile HOL-1 and another purple photosynthetic organism, strain H1R, that was originally isolated as an unidentified contaminant. Through genome sequencing, we have now identified organism H1R as a species of Afifella. A whole-genome-based phylogenetic analysis of both species is provided. Copyright © 2022 Kyndt et al.
    • Relationship Between Age at Menopause, Obesity, and Incident Heart Failure: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study

      Ebong, I.A.; Wilson, M.D.; Appiah, D.; Michos, E.D.; Racette, S.B.; Villablanca, A.; Breathett, K.; Lutsey, P.L.; Wellons, M.; Watson, K.E.; et al. (NLM (Medline), 2022)
      Background The mechanisms linking menopausal age and heart failure (HF) incidence are controversial. We investigated for heterogeneity by obesity on the relationship between menopausal age and HF incidence. Methods and Results Using postmenopausal women who attended the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study Visit 4, we estimated hazard ratios of incident HF associated with menopausal age using Cox proportional hazards models, testing for effect modification by obesity and adjusting for HF risk factors. Women were categorized by menopausal age: <45 years, 45 to 49 years, 50 to 54 years, and ≥55 years. Among 4441 postmenopausal women, aged 63.5±5.5 years, there were 903 incident HF events over a mean follow-up of 16.5 years. The attributable risk of generalized and central obesity for HF incidence was greatest among women who experienced menopause at age ≥55 years: 11.09/1000 person-years and 7.38/1000 person-years, respectively. There were significant interactions of menopausal age with body mass index and waist circumference for HF incidence, Pinteraction 0.02 and 0.001, respectively. The hazard ratios of incident HF for a SD increase in body mass index was elevated in women with menopausal age <45 years [1.39 (1.05-1.84)]; 45-49 years [1.33, (1.06-1.67)]; and ≥55 years [2.02, (1.41-2.89)]. The hazard ratio of incident HF for a SD increase in waist circumference was elevated only in women with menopausal age ≥55 years [2.93, (1.85-4.65)]. Conclusions As obesity worsened, the risk of developing HF became significantly greater when compared with women with lower body mass index and waist circumference, particularly among those who had experienced menopause at age ≥55 years.
    • The P2X7 Receptor Promotes Colorectal Inflammation and Tumorigenesis by Modulating Gut Microbiota and the Inflammasome

      Bernardazzi, C.; Castelo-Branco, M.T.L.; Pêgo, B.; Ribeiro, B.E.; Rosas, S.L.B.; Santana, P.T.; Machado, J.C.; Leal, C.; Thompson, F.; Coutinho-Silva, R.; et al. (MDPI, 2022)
      Background: Given the role of the P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), we investigated its role in the development and progression of colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CA-CRC). Methods: CA-CRC was induced in P2X7R+/+ and P2X7R−/− mice with azoxymethane (AOM) combined with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). In a therapeutic protocol, P2X7R+/+ mice were treated with a P2X7R-selective inhibitor (A740003). Mice were evaluated with follow-up video endoscopy with endoluminal ultrasound biomicroscopy. Colon tissue was analyzed for histological changes, densities of immune cells, expression of transcription factors, cytokines, genes, DNA methylation, and microbiome composition of fecal samples by sequencing for 16S rRNA. Results: The P2X7R+/+ mice displayed more ulcers, tumors, and greater wall thickness, than the P2X7R−/− and the P2X7R+/+ mice treated with A740003. The P2X7R+/+ mice showed increased accumulation of immune cells, production of proinflammatory cytokines, activation of intracellular signaling pathways, and upregulation of NLRP3 and NLRP12 genes, stabilized after the P2X7R-blockade. Microbial changes were observed in the P2X7R−/− and P2X7R+/+-induced mice, partially reversed by the A740003 treatment. Conclusions: Regulatory mechanisms activated downstream of the P2X7R in combination with signals from a dysbiotic microbiota result in the activation of intracellular signaling pathways and the inflammasome, amplifying the inflammatory response and promoting CA-CRC development. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
    • Insights into Improving Risk and Safety Communication through Environmental Health Literacy

      Lindsey, M.; Richmond, B.; Quintanar, D.R.; Spradlin, J.; Halili, L.; Southwest Environmental Health Sciences Center, College of Pharmacy, University of Arizona (MDPI, 2022)
      Messages and materials developed to communicate risk to the public are often misunder-stood because the public misperceives risk, science information is too complex, leading to audience misunderstandings, and an overarching focus on the details of the problem without supplying solutions or actions to keep the public safe. This article describes the creation of a communication model to improve risk communication that includes safety information. The authors describe essential components of Risk and Safety Communication based on features of Environmental Health Literacy (EHL), which informed the creation of a protocol for developing risk communication messages and materials. An online training module was developed to aid communicators in creating information to enable the public to protect themselves, their family, and their community, leading to improved comprehension of how the environment impacts health. These principles were developed in a series of focus groups, identifying how the public perceives risk, how they prefer to receive communication, and how participants respond to materials developed using the principles. Important topics discussed are understanding the literacy levels of the target audience, applying that understanding to developing messages, how risk perception leads to misperceptions and how to address those misperceptions by using plain language when developing focused messages and materials. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
    • CondiDiag1.0: A flexible online diagnostic tool for conditional sampling and budget analysis in the E3SM atmosphere model (EAM)

      Wan, H.; Zhang, K.; Rasch, P.J.; Larson, V.E.; Zeng, X.; Zhang, S.; Dixon, R.; Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, The University of Arizona (Copernicus GmbH, 2022)
      Numerical models used in weather and climate prediction take into account a comprehensive set of atmospheric processes (i.e., phenomena) such as the resolved and unresolved fluid dynamics, radiative transfer, cloud and aerosol life cycles, and mass or energy exchanges with the Earth's surface. In order to identify model deficiencies and improve predictive skills, it is important to obtain process-level understanding of the interactions between different processes. Conditional sampling and budget analysis are powerful tools for process-oriented model evaluation, but they often require tedious ad hoc coding and large amounts of instantaneous model output, resulting in inefficient use of human and computing resources. This paper presents an online diagnostic tool that addresses this challenge by monitoring model variables in a generic manner as they evolve within the time integration cycle. The tool is convenient to use. It allows users to select sampling conditions and specify monitored variables at run time. Both the evolving values of the model variables and their increments caused by different atmospheric processes can be monitored and archived. Online calculation of vertical integrals is also supported. Multiple sampling conditions can be monitored in a single simulation in combination with unconditional sampling. The paper explains in detail the design and implementation of the tool in the Energy Exascale Earth System Model (E3SM) version 1. The usage is demonstrated through three examples: a global budget analysis of dust aerosol mass concentration, a composite analysis of sea salt emission and its dependency on surface wind speed, and a conditionally sampled relative humidity budget. The tool is expected to be easily portable to closely related atmospheric models that use the same or similar data structures and time integration methods. © Copyright:
    • Assessing Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) for Evaluation of Aedes aegypti Population Age Structure

      Joy, T.; Chen, M.; Arnbrister, J.; Williamson, D.; Li, S.; Nair, S.; Brophy, M.; Garcia, V.M.; Walker, K.; Ernst, K.; et al. (MDPI, 2022)
      Given that older Aedes aegypti (L.) mosquitoes typically pose the greatest risk of pathogen transmission, the capacity to age grade wild Ae. aegypti mosquito populations would be a valuable tool in monitoring the potential risk of arboviral transmission. Here, we compared the effec-tiveness of near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to age grade field-collected Ae. aegypti with two alternative techniques—parity analysis and transcript abundance of the age-associated gene SCP1. Using lab-reared mosquitoes of known ages from three distinct populations maintained as adults under laboratory or semi-field conditions, we developed and validated four NIRS models for predicting the age of field-collected Ae. aegypti. To assess the accuracy of these models, female Ae. aegypti mosquitoes were collected from Maricopa County, AZ, during the 2017 and 2018 mon-soon season, and a subset were age graded using the three different age-grading techniques. For both years, each of the four NIRS models consistently graded parous mosquitoes as significantly older than nulliparous mosquitoes. Furthermore, a significant positive linear association occurred between SCP1 and NIRS age predictions in seven of the eight year/model combinations, although considerable variation in the predicted age of individual mosquitoes was observed. Our results suggest that although the NIRS models were not adequate in determining the age of individual field-collected mosquitoes, they have the potential to quickly and cost effectively track changes in the age structure of Ae. aegypti populations across locations and over time. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.
    • Academic Reminiscences and Thermodynamics-Kinetics of Thermo-Barometry-Chronology

      Ganguly, J.; Department of Geosciences, University of Arizona (Associacao Portuguesa de Estudos sobre as Mulheres, 2021)
      This article has three major components that include, in addition to the technical aspects, reminiscences of my academic upbringing, my move to the USA from India, and my professional career. I have recounted many stories that I hope convey some sense of time, especially in these two countries with vastly different cultures, my personal journey with its ups and downs and how I made the transition to an academic career path in USA even though that was not in my future plan as a young man. The development of the field of thermobarometry and its integration with diffusion and crystal kinetic modelling of compositional zoning (or lack thereof) and cation ordering in minerals have led to important quantitative constraints on the pressure-temperature-time evolution of terrestrial rocks and meteorites. I review the historical developments in these areas and a segment of my own research spanning the period of 1964-2021. The foundational works of the thermometry of metamorphic rocks and palaeothermometry were laid at the University of Chicago around 1950. Subsequently, the synergetic growth of thermodynamics and experimental studies in petrology in the 1960s and 1970s, along with the introduction of electron microprobe as a nondestructive analytical tool with micron scale resolution, gave a major boost to the field of thermobarometry. There were also significant new developments in the field of thermodynamics of solid solutions in the petrology community and demonstration from observational data, countering strong scepticism, that the principles of classical thermodynamics were applicable to “complex natural systems”. The section on thermodynamic basis of thermobarometry concludes with a discussion of the thermodynamics of trace element and single mineral thermometry. I further deal with the experimental protocols, along with selected examples, for phase equilibrium studies that provide the bedrock foundation for the field of thermobarometry based on elemental compositions of coexisting minerals in a rock. It is followed by an account of the controversies and international meetings relating to the aluminum silicate and peridotite phase diagrams that play crucial roles in the thermobarometry of metamorphic rocks and mantle xenoliths, respectively. The construction of quantitative petrogenetic grids to display stability relations of minerals in multicomponent-multiphase systems came into play in the field of metamorphic petrology in the mid-1960s and early 1970s. Augmented by experimental data, these petrogenetic grids led to important discoveries about the P-T-f(O2) and bulk compositional controls on the stability of certain “index” minerals that are used to define metamorphic isograds and different types of regional metamorphism; one such grid also opened up a new field that came to be known as ultra-high temperature metamorphism. The construction of petrogenetic grids has now evolved to computer based calculations of complex equilibrium P-T phase diagrams, commonly referred to as “pseudosections”, by minimisation of Gibbs free energy of a system with fixed bulk composition. I discuss these historical developments and modern advancements. Subsequently I highlight some aspects of thermobarometry and diffusion kinetic modelling of selected natural samples along with their broader implications and present a critical discussion of different protocols for thermobarometry of natural assemblages. Following up on the introductory historical perspective of development of palaeothermometry, I discuss the modern advancements using density functional theory (DFT). Examples of DFT based calculations have been shown for hydrogen isotope fractionation in mineral-water/hydrogen systems and “clumped isotope” thermometry. The hydrogen isotope fractionation data led the development of new low temperature palaeothermometers using serpentine-talc/brucite mineral pairs. These results enable simultaneous solutions of both temperature and source of fluid in the serpentinisation process of rocks. The final section is devoted to high temperature thermochronology dealing with the problems of closure temperature of decay systems in minerals and the use of bulk and spatial resetting of mineral age according to a specific decay system to determine cooling rates of the host rocks. Complications arise in the interpretation of mineral ages determined by such decay systems as 176Lu-176Hf or the short- lived system 53Mn-53Cr in which the parent nuclide has a much lower closure temperature than the corresponding daughter product. Numerical simulations help explain the discrepancy between the 176Lu-176Hf and 147Sm-143Nd ages of garnets in metamorphic rocks and enable construction of the entire T-t cycle from the discrepant ages and some additional constraints. © 2021 Associacao Portuguesa de Estudos sobre as Mulheres. All rights reserved.
    • Search for flavour-changing neutral-current interactions of a top quark and a gluon in pp collisions at √s=13 TeV with the ATLAS detector

      ATLAS Collaboration; Department of Physics, University of Arizona (Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH, 2022)
      A search is presented for the production of a single top quark via left-handed flavour-changing neutral-current (FCNC) interactions of a top quark, a gluon and an up or charm quark. Two production processes are considered: u+ g→ t and c+ g→ t. The analysis is based on proton–proton collision data taken at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV with the ATLAS detector at the LHC. The data set corresponds to an integrated luminosity of 139 fb- 1. Events with exactly one electron or muon, exactly one b-tagged jet and missing transverse momentum are selected, resembling the decay products of a singly produced top quark. Neural networks based on kinematic variables differentiate between events from the two signal processes and events from background processes. The measured data are consistent with the background-only hypothesis, and limits are set on the production cross-sections of the signal processes: σ(u+g→t)×B(t→Wb)×B(W→ℓν)&lt;3.0pb and σ(c+g→t)×B(t→Wb)×B(W→ℓν)&lt;4.7pb at the 95% confidence level, with B(W→ ℓν) = 0.325 being the sum of branching ratios of all three leptonic decay modes of the W boson. Based on the framework of an effective field theory, the cross-section limits are translated into limits on the strengths of the tug and tcg couplings occurring in the theory: |CuGut|/Λ2&lt;0.057TeV- 2 and |CuGct|/Λ2&lt;0.14TeV- 2. These bounds correspond to limits on the branching ratios of FCNC-induced top-quark decays: B(t→ u+ g) &lt; 0.61 × 10 - 4 and B(t→ c+ g) &lt; 3.7 × 10 - 4. © 2022, The Author(s).
    • Episodic Memory and Executive Function Are Differentially Affected by Retests but Similarly Affected by Age in a Longitudinal Study of Normally-Aging Older Adults

      Glisky, E.L.; Woolverton, C.B.; McVeigh, K.S.; Grilli, M.D.; Aging and Cognition Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of Arizona; Human Memory Laboratory, Department of Psychology, University of Arizona (Frontiers Media S.A., 2022)
      Episodic memory and executive function are two cognitive domains that have been studied extensively in older adults and have been shown to decline in normally-aging older individuals. However, one of the problems with characterizing cognitive changes in longitudinal studies has been separating effects attributable to normal aging from effects created by repeated testing or practice. In the present study, 166 people aged 65 and older were enrolled over several years and tested at least 3 times at variable intervals (M = 3.2 yrs). The cognitive measures were composite scores. Each composite was made up of five neuropsychological tests, previously identified through factor analysis. For one pair of composite scores, variance attributable to age was removed from each subtest through regression analyses before z-scores were computed, creating two age-corrected composites. A second pair of composites were not age-corrected. Using linear mixed-effects models, we first explored retest effects for each cognitive domain, independent of age, using the age-corrected composites. We then modeled aging effects using the age-uncorrected composites after subtracting out retest effects. Results indicated significant retest effects for memory but not for executive function, such that memory performance improved across the three testing sessions. When these practice effects were removed from the age-uncorrected data, effects of aging were evident for both executive and memory function with significant declines over time. We also explored several individual difference variables including sex, IQ, and age at the initial testing session and across time. Although sex and IQ affected performance on both cognitive factors at the initial test, neither was related to practice effects, although young-older adults tended to benefit from practice to a greater extent than old-older adults. In addition, people with higher IQs showed slower age-related declines in memory, but no advantages in executive function. These findings suggest that (a) aging affects both memory and executive function similarly, (b) higher IQ, possibly reflecting cognitive reserve, may slow age-related declines in memory, and (c) practice through repeated testing enhances performance in memory particularly in younger-older adults, and may therefore mask aging effects if not taken into account. Copyright © 2022 Glisky, Woolverton, McVeigh and Grilli.
    • Mechanisms and drivers of alternative shrubland states

      Archer, S.R.; Peters, D.P.C.; Burruss, N.D.; Yao, J.; School of Natural Resources and the Environment, University of Arizona (John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2022)
      Grassland-to-shrubland state change has been widespread in arid lands globally. Long-term records at the Jornada Basin USDA-LTER site in the North American Chihuahuan Desert document the time series of transition from grassland dominance in the 1850s to shrubland dominance in the 1990s. This broadscale change ostensibly resulted from livestock overgrazing in conjunction with periodic drought and represents the classic “grassland-to-shrubland” regime shift. However, finer-scale observations reveal a more nuanced view of this state change that includes transitions from dominance by one shrub functional type to another (e.g., based on leaf habit [evergreen vs. deciduous], N2 fixation potential, and drought tolerance). We analyzed the Jornada Basin historic vegetation data using a fine-scale grid and classified the dominant vegetation in the resulting 890 cells on each of four dates (1858, 1915, 1928, and 1998). This analysis allowed us to quantify on contrasting soil geomorphic units the rate and spatial distribution of: (1) state change from grasslands to shrublands across the Jornada Basin, (2) transitions between shrub functional groups, and (3) transitions from shrub-to-grass dominance. Results from our spatially explicit, decadal timescale perspective show that: (1) shrubland ecosystems developing on former grasslands were spatially and temporally more dynamic than has been generally presumed, (2) in some locations, shrublands initially developing on grasslands subsequently transitioned to ecosystems dominated by a different shrub functional type, with these changes in shrub composition likely involving changes in soil properties, and (3) some shrub-dominated locations have reverted to grass dominance. Accordingly, traditional, broad characterizations of “grassland-to-shrubland” state change may be too simplistic. An accounting of these complexities and transitions from one shrub functional group to another is important for projecting state change consequences for ecosystem processes. Understanding the mechanisms, drivers, and influence of interactions between patterns and processes on transitions between shrub states defined by woody plant functional types will be germane to predicting future landscape change. © 2022 The Authors. Ecosphere published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of The Ecological Society of America. This article has been contributed to by U.S. Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.
    • A Cross-Cutting Approach for Relating Anthropocene, Environmental Injustice and Sacrifice Zones

      Gayo, E.M.; Muñoz, A.A.; Maldonado, A.; Lavergne, C.; Francois, J.P.; Rodríguez, D.; Klock-Barría, K.; Sheppard, P.R.; Aguilera-Betti, I.; Alonso-Hernández, C.; et al. (John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2022)
      The Anthropocene is an uneven phenomenon. Accelerated shifts in the functioning of the Earth System are mainly driven by the production and consumption of wealthy economies. Social, environmental and health costs of such industrialization, however, bear on low-income communities inhabiting severely degraded territories by polluting activities (i.e., sacrifice zones). How global, national and local socio-economic and governance processes have interacted in perpetuating socio-environmental inequalities in these territories has been rarely explored. Here, we develop an historical quantitative approach integrating a novel chemostratigraphic record, data on policy making, and socio-economic trends to evaluate the feedback relationship between environmental injustice and Anthropocene in sacrifice zones. We specifically outline a case study for the Puchuncaví valley -one of the most emblematic sacrifice zones from Chile-. We verify an ever-growing burden of heavy metals and metalloids over the past five decades paced by the staggering expansion of local industrial activities, which has ultimately been spurred by national and transnational market forces. Local poverty levels have declined concomitantly, but this path toward social equality is marginal as costs of pollution have grown through time. Indeed, national and international pollution control actions appear insufficient in mitigating the cumulative impact brought by highly toxic elements. Thus, our sub-decadal reconstruction for pollution trends over the past 136 years from a sediment record, emerges as a science-based tool for informing the discussion on Anthropocene governance. Furthermore, it helps to advance in the assessment of environmental inequality in societal models that prioritize economic growth to the detriment of socio-environmental security. © 2022 The Authors. Earth's Future published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of American Geophysical Union.
    • Maritime Aerosol and CCN Profiles Derived From Ship-Based Measurements Over Eastern North Pacific During MAGIC

      Brendecke, J.; Dong, X.; Xi, B.; Zheng, X.; Department of Hydrology and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Arizona (John Wiley and Sons Inc, 2022)
      Atmospheric aerosols are widely recognized to give rise to a substantial radiative forcing to the climate by scattering and absorbing radiation and by modifying the microphysical, lifetime, and radiative properties of clouds. During the Marine ARM GPCI Investigation of Clouds (MAGIC) over the Eastern North Pacific (ENP), the ship-based measured cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) concentration at 0.2% supersaturation (NCCN,0.2) and condensation nuclei concentration (NCN) had mean values of 116.7 and 219.4 cm−3, with the highest concentrations found closest to LA due to an increase in aerosol sources. Moving westward, both NCCN,0.2 and NCN gradually decreased until stabilizing near 100 cm−3 and 200 cm−3, respectively. Using the methods proposed by Ghan and Collins (2004), https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0426(2004)021&lt;0387:uoisdt&gt;2.0.co;2 and Ghan et al. (2006), https://doi.org/10.1029/2004jd005752, NCCN,0.2 profiles are retrieved using the surface measured NCCN,0.2 as a constraint. For coupled conditions, correlations between the retrieved NCCN,0.2 profiles and cloud-droplet number concentration (NC) increase from 0.26 at the surface to 0.38 near cloud base, particularly true for non-drizzling clouds. Although the correlations are lower than expected, the percentage increase (46.2%) is encouraging. Finally, the relationships between cloud breakup (CB) and the stratocumulus to cumulus transition (SCT) with environmental conditions and associated aerosols are also studied. The decreased NCN trend east of CB is mainly caused by precipitation scavenging, while the increased NCN trend west of CB is strongly associated with the increased surface wind speed and fewer drizzle events. A further study is needed using high-resolution models to simulate these events. © 2022 The Authors.
    • Randomized Crossover Trial Evaluating Detoxification of Tobacco Carcinogens by Broccoli Seed and Sprout Extract in Current Smokers

      Bauman, J.E.; Hsu, C.-H.; Centuori, S.; Guillen-Rodriguez, J.; Garland, L.L.; Ho, E.; Padi, M.; Bageerathan, V.; Bengtson, L.; Wojtowicz, M.; et al. (MDPI, 2022)
      Consumption of cruciferous vegetables, rich in the isothiocyanate glucoraphanin, is associated with reduced risk of tobacco-related cancers. Sulforaphane, released by hydrolysis of glucoraphanin, potently induces cytoprotective phase II enzymes. Sulforaphane decreased the incidence of oral cancer in the 4NQO carcinogenesis model. In residents of Qidong, China, broccoli seed and sprout extracts (BSSE) increased detoxification of air pollutants benzene and acrolein, also found in tobacco smoke. This randomized, crossover trial evaluated detoxification of tobacco carcinogens by the BSSE Avmacol® in otherwise healthy smokers. Participants were treated for 2 weeks with both low and higher-dose BSSE (148 µmol vs. 296 µmol of glucoraphanin daily), separated by a 2-week washout, with randomization to low-high vs. high-low sequence. The primary endpoint was detoxification of benzene, measured by urinary excretion of its mercapturic acid, SPMA. Secondary endpoints included bioavailability, detoxification of acrolein and crotonaldehyde, modulation by GST genotype, and toxicity. Forty-nine participants enrolled, including 26 (53%) females with median use of 20 cigarettes/day. Low and higher-dose BSSE showed a mean bioavailability of 11% and 10%, respectively. Higher-dose BSSE significantly upregulated urinary excretion of the mercapturic acids of benzene (p = 0.04), acrolein (p < 0.01), and crotonaldehyde (p = 0.02), independent of GST genotype. Retention and compliance were high resulting in early study completion. In conclusion, BSSE significantly upregulated detoxification of the tobacco carcinogens benzene, acrolein, and crotonaldehyde in current tobacco smokers. © 2022, MDPI. All rights reserved.
    • Retos metodológicos en el estudio del sistema de medios informativos en el Perú

      Retis, J.; Kanashiro, L.; Domenack, W.; University of Arizona (Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile 1, 2021)
      A strong media system is crucial when facing various types of crises. In Latin America, it becomes challenging to characterize media systems due to the weakness of their structural institutionalization as well as the modernization processes. In this contribution, we address methodological challenges when elaborating a database of news media outlets that could allow us to conduct consistent and comparative analyses of journalism practices with an international scope. When analyzing the Peruvian case, we face two main challenges. On the one hand, there is no national census of journalists or news media outlets; on the other hand, the institutionalization of Peruvian media remains precarious. Facing these challenges, we used a triangulation of sources as methodological strategy to elaborate a reliable survey despite the evident informal nature of certain outlets, the precarious digital identification, and the traditional categorizations that were mostly based on legacy media that become insufficient when examining these practices in a transmedia scenario. © 2021 Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile. All rights reserved.
    • Do pretrained transformers infer telicity like humans?

      Zhao, Y.; Ngui, J.G.; Hartley, L.H.; Bethard, S.; University of Arizona, Department of Linguistics; University of Arizona, School of Information (Association for Computational Linguistics (ACL), 2021)
      Pretrained transformer-based language models achieve state-of-the-art performance in many NLP tasks, but it is an open question whether the knowledge acquired by the models during pretraining resembles the linguistic knowledge of humans. We present both humans and pretrained transformers with descriptions of events, and measure their preference for telic interpretations (the event has a natural endpoint) or atelic interpretations (the event does not have a natural endpoint). To measure these preferences and determine what factors influence them, we design an English test and a novel-word test that include a variety of linguistic cues (noun phrase quantity, resultative structure, contextual information, temporal units) that bias toward certain interpretations. We find that humans’ choice of telicity interpretation is reliably influenced by theoretically-motivated cues, transformer models (BERT and RoBERTa) are influenced by some (though not all) of the cues, and transformer models often rely more heavily on temporal units than humans do. © 2021 Association for Computational Linguistics.
    • First Census of Gas-phase Metallicity Gradients of Star-forming Galaxies in Overdense Environments at Cosmic Noon

      Li, Z.; Wang, X.; Cai, Z.; Shi, D.D.; Fan, X.; Zheng, X.Z.; Malkan, M.A.; Teplitz, H.I.; Henry, A.L.; Bian, F.; et al. (American Astronomical Society, 2022)
      We report the first spatially resolved measurements of gas-phase metallicity radial gradients in star-forming galaxies in overdense environments at z ≳ 2. The spectroscopic data are acquired by the MAMMOTH-Grism survey, a Hubble Space Telescope (HST) cycle 28 medium program. This program is obtaining 45 orbits of WFC3/IR grism spectroscopy in the density peak regions of three massive galaxy protoclusters (BOSS 1244, BOSS 1542, and BOSS 1441) at z = 2-3. Our sample in the BOSS 1244 field consists of 20 galaxies with stellar mass ranging from 109.0 to 1010.3 M ⊙, star formation rate (SFR) from 10 to 240 M ⊙ yr-1, and global gas-phase metallicity ( 12+log(O/H) ) from 8.2 to 8.6. At 1σ confidence level, 2/20 galaxies in our sample show positive (inverted) gradients - the relative abundance of oxygen increasing with galactocentric radius, opposite the usual trend. Furthermore, 1/20 shows negative gradients, and 17/20 are consistent with flat gradients. This high fraction of flat/inverted gradients is uncommon in simulations and previous observations conducted in blank fields at similar redshifts. To understand this, we investigate the correlations among various observed properties of our sample galaxies. We find an anticorrelation between metallicity gradient and global metallicity of our galaxies residing in extreme overdensities, and a marked deficiency of metallicity in our massive galaxies as compared to their coeval field counterparts. We conclude that the cold-mode gas accretion plays an active role in shaping the chemical evolution of galaxies in the protocluster environments, diluting their central chemical abundance, and flattening/inverting their metallicity gradients. © 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.
    • Chaotic and Clumpy Galaxy Formation in an Extremely Massive Reionization-era Halo

      Spilker, J.S.; Hayward, C.C.; Marrone, D.P.; Aravena, M.; Béthermin, M.; Burgoyne, J.; Chapman, S.C.; Greve, T.R.; Gururajan, G.; Hezaveh, Y.D.; et al. (American Astronomical Society, 2022)
      The SPT 0311-58 system at z = 6.900 is an extremely massive structure within the reionization epoch and offers a chance to understand the formation of galaxies at an extreme peak in the primordial density field. We present 70 mas Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array observations of the dust continuum and [C ii] 158 μm emission in the central pair of galaxies and reach physical resolutions of ∼100-350 pc, among the most detailed views of any reionization-era system to date. The observations resolve the source into at least a dozen kiloparsec-size clumps. The global kinematics and high turbulent velocity dispersion within the galaxies present a striking contrast to recent claims of dynamically cold thin-disk kinematics in some dusty galaxies just 800 Myr later at z ∼4. We speculate that both gravitational interactions and fragmentation from massive parent disks have likely played a role in the overall dynamics and formation of clumps in the system. Each clump individually is comparable in mass to other 6 < z < 8 galaxies identified in rest-UV/optical deep field surveys, but with star formation rates elevated by a factor of ∼3-5. Internally, the clumps themselves bear close resemblance to greatly scaled-up versions of virialized cloud-scale structures identified in low-redshift galaxies. Our observations are qualitatively similar to the chaotic and clumpy assembly within massive halos seen in simulations of high-redshift galaxies. © 2022. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.