Now showing items 21-40 of 70317

    • Association of Cognitive Impairment With Treatment and Outcomes in Older Myocardial Infarction Patients: A Report From the NCDR Chest Pain-MI Registry

      Bagai, Akshay; Chen, Anita Y; Udell, Jacob A; Dodson, John A; McManus, David D; Maurer, Mathew S; Enriquez, Jonathan R; Hochman, Judith; Goyal, Abhinav; Henry, Timothy D; et al. (WILEY, 2019-08-29)
      Background-Little is known regarding use of cardiac therapies and clinical outcomes among older myocardial infarction (MI) patients with cognitive impairment. Methods and Results-Patients >= 65 years old with MI in the NCDR (National Cardiovascular Data Registry) Chest Pain-MI Registry between January 2015 and December 2016 were categorized by presence and degree of chart-documented cognitive impairment. We evaluated whether cognitive impairment was associated with all-cause in-hospital mortality after adjusting for known prognosticators. Among 43 812 ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, 3.9% had mild and 2.0% had moderate/severe cognitive impairment; among 90 904 non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI patients, 5.7% had mild and 2.6% had moderate/severe cognitive impairment. A statistically significant but numerically small difference in the use of primary percutaneous coronary intervention was observed between patients with STEMI with and without cognitive impairment (none, 92.1% versus mild, 92.8% versus moderate/severe, 90.4%; P=0.03); use of fibrinolysis was lower among patients with cognitive impairment (none, 40.9% versus mild, 27.4% versus moderate/severe, 24.2%; P<0.001). Compared with NSTEMI patients without cognitive impairment, rates of angiography, percutaneous coronary intervention, and coronary artery bypass grafting were significantly lower among patients with NSTEMI with mild (41%, 45%, and 70% lower, respectively) and moderate/severe cognitive impairment (71%, 74%, and 93% lower, respectively). After adjustment, compared with no cognitive impairment, presence of moderate/severe (STEW: odds ratio, 2.2, 95% CI, 1.8-2.7; NSTEMI: odds ratio, 1.7, 95% CI, 1.4-2.0) and mild cognitive impairment (STEMI: OR, 1.3, 95% CI, 1.1-1.5; NSTEMI: odds ratio, 1.3, 95% CI, 1.2-1.5) was associated with higher in-hospital mortality. Conclusions-Patients with NSTEMI with cognitive impairment are substantially less likely to receive invasive cardiac care, while patients with STEMI with cognitive impairment receive similar primary percutaneous coronary intervention but less fibrinolysis. Presence and degree of cognitive impairment was independently associated with increased in-hospital mortality. Approaching clinical decision making for older patients with MI with cognitive impairment requires further study.
    • The Astrolabe Project: Identifying and Curating Astronomical ‘Dark Data’ through Development of Cyberinfrastructure Resources

      Stahlman, Gretchen; Heidorn, P. Bryan; Steffen, Julie; Univ Arizona, Sch Informat (E D P SCIENCES, 2018-07-27)
      As research datasets and analyses grow in complexity, data that could be valuable to other researchers and to support the integrity of published work remain uncurated across disciplines. These data are especially concentrated in the "Long Tail" of funded research, where curation resources and related expertise are often inaccessible. In the domain of astronomy, it is undisputed that uncurated "dark data" exist, but the scope of the problem remains uncertain. The "Astrolabe" Project is a collaboration between University of Arizona researchers, the CyVerse cyberinfrastructure environment, and the American Astronomical Society, with a mission to identify and ingest previously-uncurated astronomical data, and to provide a robust computational environment for analysis and sharing of data, as well as services for authors wishing to deposit data associated with publications. Following expert feedback obtained through two workshops held in 2015 and 2016, Astrolabe is funded in part by National Science Foundation. The system is being actively developed within CyVerse, and Astrolabe collaborators are soliciting heterogeneous datasets and potential users for the prototype system. Astrolabe team members are currently working to characterize the properties of uncurated astronomical data, and to develop automated methods for locating potentially-useful data to be targeted for ingest into Astrolabe, while cultivating a user community for the new data management system.
    • Heart Transplantation Survival and the Use of Traumatically Brain-Injured Donors: UNOS Registry Propensity-Matched Analysis

      Barac, Yaron D; Jawitz, Oliver K; Klapper, Jacob; Schroder, Jacob; Daneshmand, Mani A; Patel, Chet; Hartwig, Matt G; Sweitzer, Nancy K; Milano, Carmelo A; Univ Arizona, Sarver Heart Ctr, Div Cardiol (WILEY, 2019-08-30)
      Background-The transplantation of hearts from traumatically brain-injured (TBI) donors has been associated with inferior long-term survival in single-center analyses. However, in a more recent analysis, death caused by cerebrovascular accident was associated with worse posttransplant survival in recipients. The purpose of this study was to explore the outcomes of heart transplantation in recipients receiving donor hearts from TBI and non-TBI donors in a large national registry. Methods and Results-We performed a retrospective cohort analysis of the UNOS (United Network of Organ Sharing) Registry Organ Procurement and Transplantation Network between 2006 and 2018 for adult candidates wait-listed for isolated heart transplantation. Recipients were stratified into 2 groups, TBI and non-TBI donors. Propensity score matching was performed. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to estimate survival posttransplant. A total of 24 894 candidates met inclusion criteria. TBI was the leading cause of death in the donor population. Recipients of TBI donor hearts (N=13 07) were younger (median age, 55 versus 57 years; P<0.001) and less likely women (21.6% versus 29.8%; P<0.001). At 10 years, the TBI group had better long-term survival compared with the non-TBI group (62.8% versus 59.9%; P<0.001). After propensity group matching, the 10-year survival was similar between groups. Conclusions-In the largest analysis of heart transplants and their survival, according to the type of donor injury (TBI versus non-TBI), we found similar survival in heart transplant recipients. Future studies should address specific subpopulations (eg, hemorrhagic stroke) in the non-TBI group to address concerns about reduced posttransplant survival.
    • Influence of low-dose radiation on abscopal responses in patients receiving high-dose radiation and immunotherapy

      Menon, Hari; Chen, Dawei; Ramapriyan, Rishab; Verma, Vivek; Barsoumian, Hampartsoum B; Cushman, Taylor R; Younes, Ahmed I; Cortez, Maria A; Erasmus, Jeremy J; de Groot, Patricia; et al. (BMC, 2019-09-04)
      Background Preclinical evidence suggests that low-dose radiation may overcome the inhibitory effects of the tumor stroma and improve a tumor's response to immunotherapy, when combined with high-dose radiation to another tumor. The aim of this study was to evaluate tumor responses to this combination in a clinical setting. Methods A post-hoc analysis of 3 ongoing immunoradiation trials was performed. Twenty-six (of 155) patients received low-dose radiation (1-20 Gy total), either as scatter from high-dose radiation or from intentional treatment of a second isocenter with low-dose radiation, were evaluated for response. The low-dose lesions were compared to lesions that received no radiation (< 1 Gy total). Response rates, both defined as complete and partial responses as defined by RECIST criteria were used to compare lesion types. Results The 26 patients had a total of 83 lesions for comparison (38 receiving low-dose, 45 receiving no-dose). The average dose given to low-dose lesions was 7.3 Gy (1.1-19.4 Gy), and the average time to response was 56 days. Twenty-two out of 38 (58%) low-dose lesions met the PR/CR criteria for RECIST compared with 8 out of 45 (18%) no-dose lesions (P = 0.0001). The median change for longest diameter size for low-dose lesions was - 38.5% compared to 8% in no-dose lesions (P < 0.0001). Among the low-dose lesions that had at least one no-dose lesion within the same patient as a control (33 and 45 lesions respectively), 12 low-dose lesions (36%) responded without a corresponding response in their no-dose lesions; Conversely, two (4%) of the no-dose lesions responded without a corresponding response in their low-dose lesion (P = 0.0004). Conclusions Low-dose radiation may increase systemic response rates of metastatic disease treated with high-dose radiation and immunotherapy.
    • Acute and 1-Year Hospitalization Costs for Acute Myocardial Infarction Treated With Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: Results From the TRANSLATE-ACS Registry

      Cowper, Patricia A; Knight, J David; Davidson-Ray, Linda; Peterson, Eric D; Wang, Tracy Y; Mark, Daniel B; Univ Arizona, Univ Phys Healthcare Hosp (WILEY, 2019-04-12)
      Background-Hospitalization for acute myocardial infarction (MI) in the United States is both common and expensive, but those features alone provide little insight into cost-saving opportunities. Methods and Results-To understand the cost drivers during hospitalization for acute MI and in the following year, we prospectively studied 11 969 patients with acute MI undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention at 233 US hospitals (2010-2013) from the TRANSLATE-ACS (Treatment With ADP Receptor Inhibitors: Longitudinal Assessment of Treatment Patterns and Events After Acute Coronary Syndrome) registry. Baseline costs were collected in a random subset (n=4619 patients, 54% ST-segment-elevation MI [STEMID, while follow-up costs out to 1 year were collected for all patients. The mean index length of stay was 3.1 days (for both STEMI and non-STEMI) and mean intensive care unit length of stay was 1.2 days (1.4 days for STEMI and 1.0 days for non-STEMI). Index hospital costs averaged $18 931 ($19 327 for STEMI, $18 465 for non-STEMI), with 45% catheterization laboratory-related and 20% attributable to postprocedure hospital stay. Patient factors, including severity of illness and extent of coronary disease, and hospital characteristics, including for profit status and geographic region, identified significant variations in cost. Intensive care was used for 53% of non-STEMI and increased costs by $3282. Postdischarge 1-year costs averaged $8037, and 48% of patients were rehospitalized (half within 2 months and 57% with a cardiovascular diagnosis). Conclusions-While much of the cost of patients with acute MI treated with percutaneous coronary intervention is probably not modifiable by the care team, cost reductions are still possible through quality-preserving practice efficiencies, such as need-based use rather than routine use of intensive care unit for patients with stable non-STEMI.
    • Replacing Saturated Fat With Walnuts or Vegetable Oils Improves Central Blood Pressure and Serum Lipids in Adults at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease: A Randomized Controlled-Feeding Trial

      Tindall, Alyssa M; Petersen, Kristina S; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Richter, Chesney K; Proctor, David N; Kris-Etherton, Penny M; Univ Arizona, Dept Nutr Sci (WILEY, 2019-05-01)
      Background-Walnuts have beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk factors, but it is unclear whether these effects are attributable to the fatty acid (FA) content, including alpha-linolenic acid (ALA), and/or bioactives. Methods and Results-A randomized, controlled, 3-period, crossover, feeding trial was conducted in individuals at risk for cardiovascular disease (n=45). Following a 2-week standard Western diet run-in (12% saturated FAs [SFA], 7% polyunsaturated FAs, 12% monounsaturated FAs), participants consumed 3 isocaloric weight-maintenance diets for 6 weeks each: a walnut diet (WD; 7% SFA, 16% polyunsaturated FAs, 3% ALA, 9% monounsaturated FAs); a walnut FA-matched diet; and an oleic acid-replaced-ALA diet (7% SFA, 14% polyunsaturated FAs, 0.5% ALA, 12% monounsaturated FAs), which substituted the amount of ALA from walnuts in the WD with oleic acid. This design enabled evaluation of the effects of whole walnuts versus constituent components. The primary end point, central systolic blood pressure, was unchanged, and there were no significant changes in arterial stiffness. There was a treatment effect (P=0.04) for central diastolic blood pressure; there was a greater change following the WD versus the oleic acid-replaced-ALA diet (-1.78 +/- 1.0 versus 0.15 +/- 0.7 mm Hg, P=0.04). There were no differences between the WD and the walnut fatty acid-matched diet (-0.22 +/- 0.8 mm Hg, P=0.20) or the walnut FA-matched and oleic acid-replaced-ALA diets (P=0.74). The WD significantly lowered brachial and central mean arterial pressure. All diets lowered total cholesterol, LDL (low-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, HDL (high-density lipoprotein) cholesterol, and non-HDL cholesterol. Conclusions-Cardiovascular benefits occurred with all moderate-fat, high-unsaturated-fat diets. As part of a low-SFA diet, the greater improvement in central diastolic blood pressure following the WD versus the oleic acid-replaced-ALA diet indicates benefits of walnuts as a whole-food replacement for SFA.
    • Imaging of π-conjugated polymer/fullerene blends used in organic photovoltaics by nonlinear photoluminescence emission

      Vardeny, Shai R.; Baniya, Sangita; Kieu, Khanh; Peyghambarian, Nasser; Vardeny, Z. Valy; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci (SPIE-SOC PHOTO-OPTICAL INSTRUMENTATION ENGINEERS, 2019-05-20)
      A number of image microscopies have been applied to films of p-conjugated polymers and their fullerene blends used in photovoltaic applications; however, they seldom are able to map the polymer/fullerene grain interfaces and detect microscopic defects in the blend films. We have conducted multiphoton microscopy using a 65-fs mode-locked laser at 1.56 mu m for spectroscopy and mapping of films of two prototype p-conjugated polymers, namely MEHPPVand P3HT combined with their blends of PCBM fullerene molecules. The pristine polymer films have shown third harmonic generation and three-photon photoluminescence emission bands that are used for mapping the film topography with micrometer spatial resolution. Since the nonlinear photoluminescence band of the photogenerated charge transfer excitons (CTE) at the polymer/fullerene interfaces in films of polymer/fullerene blends is substantially redshifted compared to that of the excitons in pristine polymers, we could readily map the polymer/fullerene grain interfaces using the nonlinear CTE photoluminescence emission. From the multiphoton imaging of the polymer/fullerene films, we show that the polymer super-grains in MEH-PPV/PCBM are substantially larger than those in P3HT/PCBM, which may be detrimental to charge transport and, in turn, to photovoltaic applications, in agreement with smaller power conversion efficiencies obtained for solar cells based on the former blend. In addition, we also found second harmonic generation emission bands in the MEH-PPV/PCBM blend that result from micron-size embedded defects that do not possess inversion symmetry that forms during the film deposition process at ambient conditions. Multiphoton microscopy and spectroscopy are valuable additions to the tools of organic semiconductor films and devices for investigating the properties and growth of polymer/fullerene blends used for photovoltaic applications with micron spatial resolution. (C) 2019 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).
    • Impact of chronic migraine attacks and their severity on the endogenous μ-opioid neurotransmission in the limbic system

      Jassar, Hassan; Nascimento, Thiago D; Kaciroti, Niko; DosSantos, Marcos F; Danciu, Theodora; Koeppe, Robert A; Smith, Yolanda R; Bigal, Marcelo E; Porreca, Frank; Casey, Kenneth L; et al. (ELSEVIER SCI LTD, 2019-01-01)
      We scanned 15 migraine patients during the spontaneous headache attack (ictal phase): 7 individuals with CM and 8 with episodic migraine (EM), as well as 7 healthy controls (HC), using positron emission tomography (PET) with the selective μ-opioid receptor (μOR) radiotracer [11C]carfentanil. Migraineurs were scanned in two paradigms, one with thermal pain threshold challenge applied to the site of the headache, and one without thermal challenge. Multivariable analysis was performed between the μ-opioid receptor availability and the clinical data.
    • Proximal small bowel obstruction in a patient with cystic fibrosis: a case report

      Alattar, Zana; Thornley, Caitlin; Behbahaninia, Milad; Sisley, Amy; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Phoenix Integrated Surg Residency; Univ Arizona, Coll Med (SPRINGEROPEN, 2019-09-13)
      Background As advancements are made in the management of cystic fibrosis (CF), survival of the CF patient into adulthood has increased, leading to the discovery of previously unknown CF complications. Though gastrointestinal complications of CF, such as distal intestinal obstruction syndrome, are common, this case demonstrates a variant presentation of small bowel obstruction in this population. Case presentation We describe a 42-year-old male with CF who presented with 2 days of worsening upper abdominal pain, emesis, and loss of bowel function. The patient had no history of any prior abdominal surgeries; however, imaging was concerning for high-grade mechanical small bowel obstruction possibly related to internal hernia. Given leukocytosis and diffusely tender abdomen found on further workup, the decision was made to proceed with diagnostic laparoscopy after a brief period of intravenous fluid resuscitation. Intraoperatively, the transition point was found in the mid-jejunum and was noted to be due to kinking of the bowel causing vascular congestion in the proximal portion. Surgical manipulation of the bowel was required for return of normal perfusion and patency. Conclusion Though the exact mechanism cannot be definitively delineated, we speculate that the increased viscosity and prolonged intestinal transit time, characteristic of CF, resulted in inspissated fecal content in the proximal small bowel, which then acted as a lead point for obstruction. Thus, though small bowel obstruction in patients with CF is often attributed to distal intestinal obstruction syndrome, a broader differential must be considered. Early surgical intervention may be necessary to prevent bowel ischemia and subsequent small bowel resection in a patient presenting with concerning clinical and image findings, as was seen in this patient.
    • Lower Bounds on the Redundancy of Huffman Codes With Known and Unknown Probabilities

      Blanes, Ian; Hernandez-Cabronero, Miguel; Serra-Sagrista, Joan; Marcellin, Michael W.; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2019-07-31)
      In this paper, we provide a method to obtain tight lower bounds on the minimum redundancy achievable by a Huffman code when the probability distribution underlying an alphabet is only partially known. In particular, we address the case where the occurrence probabilities are unknown for some of the symbols in an alphabet. Bounds can be obtained for alphabets of a given size, for alphabets of up to a given size, and alphabets of arbitrary size. The method operates on a computer algebra system, yielding closed-form numbers for all results. Finally, we show the potential of the proposed method to shed some light on the structure of the minimum redundancy achievable by the Huffman code.
    • Local temporal trajectories explain population‐level responses to climate change in saguaro (Carnegiea gigantea)

      Rodríguez‐Buriticá, Susana; Winkler, Daniel E.; Webb, Robert H.; Venable, D. Lawrence; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources; Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol (WILEY, 2019-08-21)
      Population demography is typically assumed to be strongly influenced by climatic factors, particularly with succulent plants and cacti. The saguaro cactus (Carnegiea gigantea) is a long-lived columnar cactus of the Sonoran Desert that experiences episodic recruitment and mortality. Previous studies have attributed long-term changes in saguaro populations to climatic factors, including increased germination and establishment during wet periods and mortality and reduced establishment during droughts and extreme freezes. We used a 48-yr data set of marked individuals at the Desert Laboratory in Tucson, Arizona, to test the hypothesis that local, temporal population trajectories are mediated by topographic heterogeneity that interacts with fluctuating climatic conditions. We tested the influence of local slope and aspect vs. climatic variability on a population of saguaro using >5800 marked individuals that have been measured since 1964. We examined the relationship between demography and climatic variables (drought, precipitation, and extreme temperatures) and found significant differences in growth and survival among aspects and among census periods. Saguaro population growth was higher during wet and cool periods (e.g., 1964-1970), and changes in age structures suggest that topographic differences interact with climatic fluctuations to produce unexpected demographic patterns including large recruitment events during periods of relatively unfavorable climate conditions. Our results highlight the importance of long-term data to detect demographic responses to climate that could not be predicted from short-term studies of plant physiology and population demography.
    • Differentiating lung cancer and infection based on measurements of extracellular pH with acidoCEST MRI

      Lindeman, Leila R; Jones, Kyle M; High, Rachel A; Howison, Christine M; Shubitz, Lisa F; Pagel, Mark D; Univ Arizona, Dept Med Imaging; Univ Arizona, Valley Fever Ctr Excellence; Univ Arizona, Canc Biol Grad Interdisciplinary Program; Univ Arizona, Bioengn Grad Interdisciplinary Program (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-09-10)
      Lung cancer diagnosis via imaging may be confounded by the presence of indolent infectious nodules in imaging studies. This issue is pervasive in the southwestern US where coccidioidomycosis (Valley Fever) is endemic. AcidoCEST MRI is a noninvasive imaging method that quantifies the extracellular pH (pHe) of tissues in vivo, allowing tumor acidosis to be used as a diagnostic biomarker. Using murine models of lung adenocarcinoma and coccidoidomycosis, we found that average lesion pHe differed significantly between tumors and granulomas. Our study shows that acidoCEST MRI is a promising tool for improving the specificity of lung cancer diagnosis.
    • Ground and excited S1 states of the beryllium atom

      Hornyák, István; Adamowicz, Ludwik; Bubin, Sergiy; Univ Arizona, Dept Phys; Univ Arizona, Dept Chem & Biochem (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2019-09-04)
      Benchmark calculations of the total and transition energies of the four lowest S-1 states of the beryllium atom are performed. The computational approach is based on variational calculations with finite mass of the nucleus. All-particle explicitly correlated Gaussian (ECG) functions are used to expand the total non-Born-Oppenheimer nonrelativistic wave functions and the ECG exponential parameters are optimized using the standard variational method. The leading relativistic and quantum electrodynamics energy corrections are calculated using the first-order perturbation theory. A comparison of the experimental transition frequencies with the ones calculated in this work shows excellent agreement. The deviations of 0.02-0.09 cm(-1) are well within the estimated error limits for the experimental values.
    • Dynamics of interacting dark soliton stripes

      Kevrekidis, P. G.; Wang, Wenlong; Theocharis, G.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.; Carretero-González, R.; Anderson, B. P.; Univ Arizona, Coll Opt Sci (AMER PHYSICAL SOC, 2019-09-09)
      In the present work we examine the statics and dynamics of multiple parallel dark soliton stripes in a two-dimensional Bose-Einstein condensate. Our principal goal is to study the effect of the interaction between the stripes on the transverse instability of the individual stripes. The cases of two-, three-, and four-stripe states are studied in detail. We use a recently developed adiabatic invariant formulation to derive a quasianalytical prediction for the stripe equilibrium position and for the Bogoliubov-de Gennes spectrum of excitations of stationary stripes. We subsequently test our predictions against numerical simulations of the full two-dimensional Gross-Pitaevskii equation. We find that the number of unstable eigenmodes increases as the number of stripes increases due to (unstable) relative motions between the stripes. Their corresponding growth rates do not significantly change, although for large chemical potentials, the larger the stripe number, the larger the maximal instability growth rate. The instability induced dynamics of multiple stripe states and their decay into vortices are also investigated.
    • The sound of Bell states

      Hasan, M. Arif; Calderin, Lazaro; Lata, Trevor; Lucas, Pierre; Runge, Keith; Deymier, Pierre A.; Univ Arizona, Dept Mat Sci & Engn (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-09-05)
      Nonseparable states, analogous to “entangled” states, have generated great scientific interest since the very beginning of quantum mechanics. To date, however, the concept of “classical nonseparability” has only been applied to nonseparable states of different degrees-of-freedom in laser beams. Here, we experimentally demonstrate the preparation and tunability of acoustic nonseparable states, i.e. Bell states, supported by coupled elastic waveguides. A Bell state is constructed as a superposition of elastic waves, each a tensor product of a spinor part and an orbital angular momentum (OAM) part, which cannot be factored as a single tensor product. We also find that the amplitude coefficients of the nonseparable superposition of states must be complex. By tuning these complex amplitudes, we are able to experimentally navigate a sizeable portion of the Bell state’s Hilbert space. The current experimental findings open the door to the extension of classical nonseparability to the emerging field of phononics.
    • Subjective response to intranasal nicotine administration in oral contraceptive users and naturally-cycling women

      Allen, Alicia M.; Friedrichsen, Samantha C.; Petersen, Nicole; Allen, Sharon S.; Univ Arizona, Coll Med, Dept Family & Community Med (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2019-07-03)
      Introduction: Approximately half of premenopausal women who smoke cigarettes also use hormonal contraceptives, with most using oral contraceptives (OCs). While research on the effects of endogenous hormones on smoking-related outcomes continues to expand, little is known about the influence of OCs on similar outcomes. We sought to explore differences in the subjective response to nicotine by OC use after stratifying by testing condition (e.g., smoking status). Methods: Participants were regular (>= 5 cigarettes/day) smokers, classified into OC and naturally cycling (NC) groups. All participants completed four total lab sessions by smoking status (ad libitum smoking, acute smoking abstinence) and anticipated progesterone level (low progesterone week (LPW), high progesterone week (HPW)). Each lab session included self-administration of intranasal nicotine (Time 0 min), assessment of subjective response via the Subjective State Scale (- 30 and + 5 min). Results: Compared to the NC group (n = 28), the OC group (n = 14) was younger (26.2 +/- 1.1 versus 24.2 +/- 1.1; p < 0.001) and had a lower Fagerstriim Test for Nicotine Dependence score (3.4 +/- 0.5 versus 2.6 +/- 0.5; p = 0.011). Progesterone-to-estradiol ratios varied significantly by group at three of the four time points (p < 0.05). During ad libitum smoking, the OC group had significantly lower craving after nicotine administration than the NC group (1.93 +/- 0.33 versus 2.89 +/- 0.23; p = 0.024). No other significant differences in subjective response were identified. Conclusions: Despite significantly different hormone levels, group differences in subjective response to nicotine were relatively few. Additional research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in these observations, as well as explore how they may influence cessation in women.
    • Statement on imaging and pulmonary hypertension from the Pulmonary Vascular Research Institute (PVRI)

      Kiely, David G; Levin, David; Hassoun, Paul; Ivy, David D; Jone, Pei-Ni; Bwika, Jumaa; Kawut, Steven M; Lordan, Jim; Lungu, Angela; Mazurek, Jeremy; et al. (SAGE PUBLICATIONS INC, 2019-07-01)
      Pulmonary hypertension (PH) is highly heterogeneous and despite treatment advances it remains a life-shortening condition. There have been significant advances in imaging technologies, but despite evidence of their potential clinical utility, practice remains variable, dependent in part on imaging availability and expertise. This statement summarizes current and emerging imaging modalities and their potential role in the diagnosis and assessment of suspected PH. It also includes a review of commonly encountered clinical and radiological scenarios, and imaging and modeling-based biomarkers. An expert panel was formed including clinicians, radiologists, imaging scientists, and computational modelers. Section editors generated a series of summary statements based on a review of the literature and professional experience and, following consensus review, a diagnostic algorithm and 55 statements were agreed. The diagnostic algorithm and summary statements emphasize the key role and added value of imaging in the diagnosis and assessment of PH and highlight areas requiring further research.
    • Racial/ethnic disparities in renal cell carcinoma: Increased risk of early-onset and variation in histologic subtypes

      Batai, Ken; Harb-De la Rosa, Alfredo; Zeng, Jiping; Chipollini, Juan J; Gachupin, Francine C; Lee, Benjamin R; Univ Arizona, Dept Urol; Univ Arizona, Dept Family & Community Med (WILEY, 2019-09-11)
      Background Racial/ethnic minority groups have a higher burden of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), but RCC among Hispanic Americans (HAs) and American Indians and Alaska Natives (AIs/ANs) are clinically not well characterized. We explored variations in age at diagnosis and frequencies of RCC histologic subtypes across racial/ethnic groups and Hispanic subgroups using National Cancer Database (NCDB) and Arizona Cancer Registry Data. Methods Adult RCC cases with known race/ethnicity were included. Logistic regression analysis was performed to estimate odds and 95% confidence interval (CI) of early-onset (age at diagnosis <50 years) and diagnosis with clear cell RCC (ccRCC) or papillary RCC. Results A total of 405 073 RCC cases from NCDB and 9751 cases from ACR were identified and included. In both datasets, patients from racial/ethnic minority groups had a younger age at diagnosis than non-Hispanic White (NHW) patients. In the NCDB, AIs/ANs had twofold increased odds (OR, 2.21; 95% CI, 1.88-2.59) of early-onset RCC compared with NHWs. HAs also had twofold increased odds of early-onset RCC (OR, 2.14; 95% CI, 1.79-2.55) in the ACR. In NCDB, ccRCC was more prevalent in AIs (86.3%) and Mexican Americans (83.5%) than NHWs (72.5%). AIs/ANs had twofold increased odds of diagnosis with ccRCC (OR, 2.18; 95% CI, 1.85-2.58) in the NCDB, but the association was stronger in the ACR (OR, 2.83; 95% CI, 2.08-3.85). Similarly, Mexican Americans had significantly increased odds of diagnosis with ccRCC (OR, 2.00; 95% CI, 1.78-2.23) in the NCDB. Conclusions This study reports younger age at diagnosis and higher frequencies of ccRCC histologic subtype in AIs/ANs and Hispanic subgroups. These variations across racial/ethnic groups and Hispanic subgroups may have potential clinical implications.
    • Interrogating Mutant Allele Expression via Customized Reference Genomes to Define Influential Cancer Mutations

      Grant, Adam D; Vail, Paris; Padi, Megha; Witkiewicz, Agnieszka K; Knudsen, Erik S; Univ Arizona, Canc Ctr; Univ Arizona, Dept Mol & Cellular Biol (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-09-04)
      Genetic alterations are essential for cancer initiation and progression. However, differentiating mutations that drive the tumor phenotype from mutations that do not affect tumor fitness remains a fundamental challenge in cancer biology. To better understand the impact of a given mutation within cancer, RNA-sequencing data was used to categorize mutations based on their allelic expression. For this purpose, we developed the MAXX (Mutation Allelic Expression Extractor) software, which is highly effective at delineating the allelic expression of both single nucleotide variants and small insertions and deletions. Results from MAXX demonstrated that mutations can be separated into three groups based on their expression of the mutant allele, lack of expression from both alleles, or expression of only the wild-type allele. By taking into consideration the allelic expression patterns of genes that are mutated in PDAC, it was possible to increase the sensitivity of widely used driver mutation detection methods, as well as identify subtypes that have prognostic significance and are associated with sensitivity to select classes of therapeutic agents in cell culture. Thus, differentiating mutations based on their mutant allele expression via MAXX represents a means to parse somatic variants in tumor genomes, helping to elucidate a gene's respective role in cancer.
    • Modification of spintronic terahertz emitter performance through defect engineering

      Nenno, Dennis M; Scheuer, Laura; Sokoluk, Dominik; Keller, Sascha; Torosyan, Garik; Brodyanski, Alexander; Lösch, Jörg; Battiato, Marco; Rahm, Marco; Binder, Rolf H; et al. (NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2019-09-16)
      Spintronic ferromagnetic/non-magnetic heterostructures are novel sources for the generation of THz radiation based on spin-to-charge conversion in the layers. The key technological and scientific challenge of THz spintronic emitters is to increase their intensity and frequency bandwidth. Our work reveals the factors to engineer spintronic Terahertz generation by introducing the scattering lifetime and the interface transmission for spin polarized, non-equilibrium electrons. We clarify the influence of the electron-defect scattering lifetime on the spectral shape and the interface transmission on the THz amplitude, and how this is linked to structural defects of bilayer emitters. The results of our study define a roadmap of the properties of emitted as well as detected THz-pulse shapes and spectra that is essential for future applications of metallic spintronic THz emitters.