Now showing items 21-40 of 105886

    • THE POTENTIAL SIGNIFICANCE OF MITIGATING FATIGUE WITHIN A RESISTANCE TRAINING PROGRAM: A REVIEW OF LITERATURE

      Keen, Douglas; Zyadeh, Joe Henry (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Resistance training research places a great deal of emphasis on the factors in a program that affect the stimulus imposed on an individual's muscles. Although this has done a lot in improving knowledge surrounding optimizing training programs for many, fatigue physiology can often be neglected from the discussion. This review aims to discuss several mechanisms of fatigue, both at the musculoskeletal and nervous system levels, in an attempt to theorize the best course of action an athlete can take to optimize his program depending on the level of advancement. Upon analyzing the effects of cytoplasmic calcium ion accumulation, metabolite increases, and tolerable perception of effort, this paper concludes that as individuals reach greater degrees of advancement, their set-volume tolerance for growth likely decreases, and factors such as increasing rest times and reducing rep ranges may prove beneficial in mitigating fatigue. Furthermore, fatigue may not present as a drop in performance, but rather an inability to reach maximal performance on a set-per-set basis, with experimentation being the best approach to determine the optimal threshold for the athlete.
    • EVOLUTION OF & THE IMPACTS OF SOCIOLOGY ON THE PATIENT EXPERIENCE

      Pimentel, Angel; Yamamoto, Briana (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Throughout the years, the patient experience has constantly evolved with a more recent emphasis on patient-centered care. Now, as patients have become more proactive in their health, healthcare providers are expected to be more transparent, providing care that is respectful to individuals preferences, needs, and values. Consequently, patient satisfaction surveys like HCAHPS have grown to great value for measuring success and satisfaction with care and for encouraging the implementation of patient-centered care; such implementations creates higher quality care, greater healthcare outcomes, and improved patient experience and satisfaction, ultimately strengthening the healthcare system. However, despite these advancements, racial and ethnic disparities in health continue to exist; based on one's social identity, "fundamental" factors like socioeconomic status, racial inequalities, and discrimination can dramatically impact the level of care received. Critical race theory offers a framework to address this structural racism in healthcare, while strategies like contextualizing risk factors, diversifying the healthcare workforce, and cultural competence training aim to mitigate disparities by fostering trust and awareness and by providing the tools necessary to respond to such sociocultural issues.
    • OPPRESSION AND STRESS: EXPLORING THE CONNECTION BETWEEN MINORITY STRESS THEORY AND THE ACTIVATION OF THE HPA AXIS

      Bhattacharya, Martha; Wight, Jordan (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Minority stress theory is a psychological theory that posits that minority individuals experience increased levels of chronic stress simply due to their status as minorities. This level of stress increases the more minority identities an individual has. The HPA axis is the key stress axis in the human body; importantly, it is adaptive, meaning that it can cause changes to itself if it is being over- or under-activated. It follows, then, that minority stress should activate the HPA axis and cause alterations. Though some studies have looked at the connection between the two, the majority of the study of this aspect of the field has been through literature reviews of health outcomes of minority populations, which is only one aspect of HPA axis reactivity. The aim of this review is to a) provide background information around the HPA axis and minority stress theory; b) explore the connection between the two by summarizing prior literature reviews and studies done; and c) provide future directions to make this research effective and usable for the communities it most impacts.
    • VIBROSHEARTM: A SYSTEM FOR HIGH-THROUGHPUT DRUG DISCOVERY OF AGENTS LIMITING SHEAR-MEDIATED CELL (PLATELET) ACTIVATION

      Head, Larry; Wheeler, Ashley (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      The goal of the VibroshearTM project is to design and build a system for high throughput drug screening of agents that limit shear mediated platelet activation. For context, thrombosis and clotting complications are a major risk associated with implantation of cardiovascular therapeutic devices (CTDs). The force behind this phenomenon are platelets which are responsible for blood coagulation and activate in response to shear force imparted upon blood flowing through the physical path of these artificial cardiovascular devices. To limit blood clot formation, patients are often prescribed drugs that biochemically target pathways associated with platelet activation. Thus far in the Slepian lab, studies have found that no particular drugs in clinical use are able to block shear-mediated platelet activation since they were not developed to target mechanical mechanisms such as shear. That said, this system provides activation of platelets (within Gel-Filtered-Platelets) to allow for screening of new drugs that will be tested within a lab space to inhibit this activation. To achieve this, the system consists of a magnetically driven stir-plate fit to a 96-well plate with a specialized lid, enabling efficient agitation of the samples. To complement the experimental setup, a custom app streamlines data acquisition and analysis.
    • HOW SWIMMING AFFECTS CARDIOVASCULAR FUNCTION AMONGST INDIVIDUALS WITH DOWN SYNDROME VS TYPICALLY DEVELOPING INDIVIDUALS

      Grilli, Matt; Weaver, Noah T. (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Cardiovascular differences in Down syndrome (DS), the most common chromosomal disorder, mark a key difference between this population and typically developing (TD) individuals. This study, conducted by the Memory Development & Disorders Lab at the University of Arizona, investigated how swimming affects cardiovascular function amongst participants with DS compared to their TD peers. Previous studies have used treadmill tests, in which children and young adults with and without DS would have their heart rates recorded continuously while on a treadmill for a set number of minutes (Bahiraei et al., 2023). However, very few studies have been conducted using more accessible forms of exercise, such as swimming. Through a generous donation from a family in Tucson, support from the Lejeune Foundation, and a partnership with the UA Campus Recreation Center, participants with DS and TD participants engaged in 8 free 30-minute swimming lessons over 2 weeks. Prior to these 2-week swim lessons, individuals attended a session in the lab and collected baseline heart rate data over a 60-minute sedentary time period. This study also evaluated memory and executive functioning prior to and during swimming, but this thesis will focus on the cardiovascular results. 23 participants with DS, ages 5-26, and 25 TD mentally-age-matched peers, ages 5-12, participated in the study. The mode of collection for heart rate was continuous using MotionWatch goggle clips. At the beginning, middle, and end of the lesson, Finger-tip Pulse Oximeter measures were collected for all participants as well. Results indicated that maximum, average, and percentage maximum heart rate significantly increased as a result of swimming in both groups, suggesting that swimming is an effective form of cardiovascular exercise in this sample. Secondly, TD participants had significantly higher maximum, average, and percentage maximum heart rates than DS participants while swimming but not at baseline, suggesting differences in heart rate between the two groups in response to swimming.
    • THE ETHICS BEHIND UTILIZATION OF GERMLINE GENE EDITING IN MEDICINE

      Cowen, Stephen; Vigil, Erin Christine (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Genetic editing has arguably been one of the most significant breakthroughs in the scientific world in recent years. Its utilizations are practically infinite, ranging from preventing genetic disorders, engineering drought-resistant crops, and finding cures for diseases like cancer. The discovery of CRISPR, or clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats, was a breakthrough in itself. CRISPR-Cas9, a variant of CRISPR, has been used successfully for several gene therapy clinical trials. These trials used somatic genetic editing, which are mutations of the genome that cannot be passed on to future generations. The success of these clinical trials opened the door to the possibility of creating more targeted, permanent genetic changes. However, introducing mutations into the genome that can be passed down to future generations, known as germline genetic editing, has brought forth an ethical debate. The majority of the scientific community believes the ethical implications of germline gene editing must be resolved before it can be legalized for widespread use. Regarding the ethics of utilizing germline gene editing in the medical field, more research, including successful clinical trials, must be performed before the practice becomes legal for widespread patient use.
    • AVOIDING DISCLOSURE? A STUDY OF ATTACHMENT ORIENTATIONS AND DAILY SOCIAL BEHAVIORS FOLLOWING MARITAL SEPARATION

      Sbarra, David; Vaughan-Signorini, Jamie L. (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      In this honors thesis study, I examined the relationship between attachment avoidance, emotional disclosure, and separation-related psychological distress among recently divorced persons. Emotional disclosure is an important mechanism of support for securely attached individuals when coping with divorce, however its role as a coping mechanism for avoidantly attached adults is not well understood. Using the Electronic Activated Recorder (EAR), the study was able to naturalistically observe daily interactions to capture emotional disclosure in conversations. I hypothesized that participants who evidenced greater use of self-disclosure will show improved levels of separation-related psychological distress (SRPD). I also hypothesized people who report high avoidance and show greater within-person levels of emotional disclosure will also report higher SRPD. The hypotheses of this study were analyzed using multilevel growth modeling. Although the present study did not find significant support for the hypotheses, an exploratory study revealed that there is correlation between the separation- related psychological distress and gender, and between the separation- related psychological distress and the length of the relationship that may guide future research.
    • THE SIGNIFICANCE OF HEALTH NARRATIVES IN PATIENT-CENTERED CARE

      Goldsmith, Melissa; Gasser, Stephanie; Valencia, Leticia P. (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      The purpose of this thesis is to explore the impact of patients' health narratives on patient outcomes, provide evidence-based recommendations for their integration into practice, and encourage patients to explore and express their health narrative. A health narrative is defined as an individual's personal story describing their experience with health, illness, and medical treatment. Health narratives are powerful tools that patients may use to communicate their preferences and needs to healthcare professionals. This thesis seeks to assist healthcare providers to understand the significance of patients' health narratives. The best practice recommendations for integrating patients' health narratives into practice include providing supportive and encouraging environments, documenting them into patient records and care plans, and remaining critical awareness of sociocultural contexts in which the narratives are created and shared. Intervention specific recommendations include establishing trusting patient-provider relationships through narrative-based interviews involving open ended questions, informing clinical decision-making through narrative-based patient rounding, and empowering patients to engage in reflective writing exercises or explore multimedia storytelling for those who may struggle with traditional forms of communication. Suggestions for the implementation and evaluation of the best practice recommendations is proposed in the concluding chapter. The Plan-Do-Study-Act (PSDA) cycle will be used to guide the implementation and evaluation of the proposed plan to improve patient outcomes and promote patient-centered care through including patient narratives in health care, monitoring results, and continuously adjusting the approach.
    • RECRUITMENT FOR RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS FOR OLDER ADULTS WITH HYPERTENSION

      Lee, Jeannie; Tran, Nhat Anh Duy (Raydon) (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      An effective recruitment strategy is vital for the success of randomized controlled trials (RTCs). However, approximately 80% of RCTs did not achieve their initial enrollment target and timeline due to study recruitment being poor-quality and ineffective, or based on RCTs that are rather hypothetical than real-world. Few clinical trials recruit older adults who are 65 years of age or older, resulting in older people being systematically excluded from much clinical research and being underrepresented in RCTs in nearly all areas of medicine. There are many factors contributing to this underrepresentation in research: ageism, benevolent prejudice, and preference for "fit" over "frail" older adults. Different recruitment approaches, namely online, virtual, and in-person, are discussed regarding advantages and disadvantages to observe how these approaches were utilized before and after the occurrence of the COVID-19 pandemic. Hypertension becomes particularly common after the age of 65, affecting more than 60% of people in developed countries. With the increased prevalence rate of hypertension in older adults, the goal of this thesis was to review the literature to assess and identify effective strategies to assist in recruiting older adults with hypertension for the MEDSReM© (Medication Education, Decision Support, Reminding and, Monitoring) system RCT. The MEDSReM RCT is testing technology interventions to improve hypertension medication adherence for older people.
    • ENHANCING THE UNIVERSITY OF ARIZONA'S STUDY ABROAD PEER ADVISING PROGRAM: A COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF MARKETING STRATEGIES

      Venkataramani, Sangeetha; Ubogy, Nicolas (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      The study abroad program at the University of Arizona offers eye-opening international educational experiences for undergraduate students. Unfortunately, many students experience difficulties during the information-gathering and applications phases, which cause them to withdraw from the program before committing to a session. This research focuses on the Study Abroad experience and takes a qualitative perspective by interviewing several students that applied and successfully studied abroad. Based on the transcripts of interviews with study abroad returnees, the study identifies pain points within Study Abroad marketing and Peer Advising and provides concrete recommendations for how to improve the process. These include providing dynamic cost information, student testimonials, and automatic application submission responses to increase engagement and reduce the number of dropped leads.
    • RETENTION OF SOURCE MEMORIES IN PRESCHOOL-AGED CHILDREN

      Gomez, Rebecca; Torres, Alycia E. (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Children encounter varying challenges in retaining similar memories linked to specific sources. To distinguish between memories, they may make connections between specific contextual characteristics of a memory, which allow them to retrieve memories after longer delays. In the present study, we examine how naps influence long-term retention of similar and dissimilar source memories in regularly napping children and whether preschool-aged children who no longer nap retain long-term information. Children were exposed to a source memory task, where they identified learned associations between two similar objects and two dissimilar objects, assigned to two puppets, and were tested 24 hours later. To assess the influence of naps on their retention, children who regularly nap either stayed awake for at least four hours or napped within two hours following the initial task. We predicted that children who nap following the initial task will have greater perfect recall of the learned associations than children that stay awake, since children that nap have less mature cognitive networks, and must nap to retain learned information (Li et al., 2015). We found that children who napped after learning had significant retention of source memories 24-hours later; whereas children who stayed awake after learning performed no greater than chance following a 24-hour delay, suggesting that regularly napping children require naps to retain learned source information. To assess learning in children who do not regularly nap, children stayed awake for at least four hours following the initial task. We predicted that these children would not need to nap to sustain learning, since their cognitive networks have matured, not requiring them to nap soon after learning (Riggins & Spencer, 2020). We found that older children had significant retention of learned source information following a 24-hour delay; whereas younger children performed no greater than chance, suggesting that younger children who no longer nap, may still require a nap after learning.
    • WATERSAFE: A MICROPLASTIC AND PFAS DETECTION SYSTEM

      Head, Larry; Tittelbaugh, Ashley (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      The average adult male consumes 142 microplastics per day, adding up to almost 50,000 particles per year. This consumption has serious health effects such as reduced metabolism, reproductive toxicity and even cancer. Current methods of microplastic detection cost more than $100k and require specialized laboratory training. Our project aims to create a low cost, small footprint, intuitive system able to be used by anyone. By employing a vacuum filtration system we concentrate the particles in a liter of water onto a 13mm diameter non-fluorescent filter. This filter is then imaged under our custom made, interchangeable fluorescence microscopy system, that boasts a 1.2um per pixel resolution. The system has an intuitive graphical user interface (GUI) that walks the user through the entire process of imaging their sample including allowing the user to customize the gain, focus, exposure time and excitation light of the system. Overall, the system, costing less than $2700, is able to identify, count and size particles with 95% accuracy. While further research needs to be done in order to differentiate between microplastics and other contaminants, our project pioneers a new future of user-friendly, low-cost particle detection suited for laboratories and homeowners alike.
    • ELECTROCATALYTIC CONVERSION OF CO2 EMISSIONS FROM VODKA PRODUCTION

      Brush, Adrianna; Swenson, Nickolaus Katsuji (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      The ethylene production and alcoholic beverage industries are major greenhouse gas emitters. This project aims to use electrocatalysis and cryogenic separations to create sustainable and pure products of ethylene (C2H4) and oxygen (O2) from the emissions of the Tito's vodka distillery in Austin, TX. The first component of this process is the electrolyzer which uses 1,484mol/min of pure CO2 from a vodka distillery to produce 634 mol/min of C2H4 and 2,098 mol/min O2 out of the electrolyzer. These products are produced alongside unwanted byproducts, so a sequence of distillation columns, cryogenic heat exchangers, mixers and knockout drums were used to achieve a high purity and flow of C2H4 and O2. Approximately 564 moles per minute of 99.9 mol% pure C2H4 and 2,089 mol/min of 99.9% pure O2 were successfully produced as end products. By utilizing wind power, this process has can remove over 28 million kg of CO2 annually. This process removes 3 tons of CO2 for every ton of ethylene produced; whereas, ethylene production via traditional methods (steam cracking) releases 1.1 tons of CO2 for every ton of ethylene produced. The effects of varying performance parameters of the electrolyzer were evaluated and analyzed as well. Economically, this process proves to be very expensive, losing over $7 million annually. Carbon taxes cannot feasibly overcome this deficit, but a premium of $0.23 per 1.75 L bottle of Tito's vodka would allow this process to break even over the project lifetime.
    • FROM PRACTICE ROOMS TO PRACTICE PROBLEMS: EXPLORING THE COGNITIVE ADVANTAGES OF MUSICAL TRAINING

      Gebrian, Molly; Sudalaimuthu, Sruthi (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Music is a powerful tool for learning and enhancing cognitive abilities. Researchers studying neuroplasticity in the brain have taken special interest in this field of study, specifically which cognitive enhancements can be seen with musical education. This paper reviews relevant literature in understanding the connection between musical training and increased cognitive performance. In particular, it evaluates how training in music affects visual attention, auditory processing, memory, and emotional recognition. The paper also recognizes how musical training can result in far-transfer effects that are not directly related to learning music. Important findings from the review include: increased brain matter in certain regions and better performance in a variety of cognitive tests ranging from reaction time to facial recognition. The report discusses the importance of musical training in schools using the example of the Harmony Project, a partnership between music education programs and schools to promote musical learning and general cognitive enhancement. These programs can catalyze cognitive enhancement and holistic development in students. Through giving underprivileged communities access to music education, the program develops critical thinking abilities that are vital for both academic achievement and lifetime learning. Through the allocation of resources from educational institutions and policymakers, these programs should be extended, especially in areas with adolescents who are at-risk, to ensure that youth and adults in all communities have the chance to enhance their cognitive abilities.
    • THE VARIED EFFECTS OF AUTHORITARIANISM ON DOMESTIC POLICY ATTITUDES AND PARTY IDENTIFICATION: CONTRASTING LATINOS AND NON HISPANIC WHITES

      Weber, Christopher; Strysko, Maya Lynn (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Authoritarianism is a prevalent topic within the study of political psychology and has been able to explain many differences in why individuals have such divergent political identities and policy preferences. This paper looks into the effects of authoritarianism on domestic policy preferences and political identity for minority groups, specifically the Hispanic population located in the Western United States. By using data from the 2020 Western States survey – a dataset that focuses on the western United States – I was able to compare the effects of authoritarianism between Hispanic and non-Hispanic voters on a range of policy issues and their political identification. The analysis then leads to the conclusion that authoritarianism has a similar effect on policy preferences for Hispanic minorities, in relation to non-Hispanic whites, but does not affect their political identity in the same way.
    • EVALUATING EVIDENCE IN SUPPORT OF MULTIPLE GENETIC LINKS TO CORONARY ARTERY DISEASE

      Rezende, Lisa; Strout, Mikayla Lauren (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Coronary artery disease (CAD) is an incredibly common and severe cardiac condition that affects people all across the world. It is a condition that requires careful monitoring, and can quickly become life threatening if left untreated. Coronary artery disease has the ability to affect a patient's eligibility for cardiac clinical trials, and can make them ineligible to participate in novel life saving procedures. These procedures are oftentimes for conditions that historically have not had a potential treatment or cure, or only have treatment options that are very high risk to the patient population in question. Through the past few decades, research into CAD has expanded to explore potential genetic variants that can influence CAD pathogenesis. This review discusses the role of 9 different genes identified through GWAS studies, the molecular pathways that each gene is involved in, and evaluates the evidence that a mutation in one or more of these genes promotes CAD development. This information could allow for patients with a genetically increased susceptibility to CAD to be screened for their disease risk and monitored for premature CAD. Ideally, this would allow them to take preventative measures against CAD, or pursue necessary treatment before the disease progresses to a state of extreme severity.
    • ANALYZING STUDENT REASONING IN ASTROBIOLOGY MOOC WRITING

      Impey, Chris; Stamer, Sarah Marie (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      This study examines student understanding and science reasoning within the Coursera MOOC Astrobiology: Exploring Time and Space. Using a mixed-methods approach, we quantitatively analyzed the correlation between essay scores and word count, alongside qualitative content analysis of reasoning and thematic patterns in student essays compared to expert writing. The methodology integrated detailed coding of essays, emphasizing factors like planetary characteristics, habitability criteria, and evolutionary potential. Results indicate that students often mirror expert-like reasoning when discussing well-defined scientific concepts such as surface water but tend to speculate more when dealing with uncertain or complex topics such as exoplanetary atmospheres. The study reveals significant differences in the application of scientific reasoning and the depth of content knowledge between students and experts, particularly in the extrapolation of life's potential on exoplanets based on limited empirical data. This research underscores the potential of MOOCs to democratize access to science education, emphasizing the importance of student writing and peer review as learning and assessment tools. By demonstrating the reasoning patterns that contribute to successful learning outcomes, the findings contribute to the understanding of educational engagement in science MOOCs, suggesting that while students are capable of approaching expert reasoning, targeted instructional interventions are necessary to bridge gaps in critical thinking and scientific understanding.
    • DETERMINING THE ROLE OF RAP1 IN REGULATING MTORC2 ACTIVITY AND FUNCTION IN CELL MIGRATION

      Charest, Pascale; Stanisic, Natalya (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Chemotaxis, the directed migration of cells in response to chemical signals, plays a crucial role in physiological processes (McNiven, 2016). Cancer metastasis is due to mis regulation, although the molecular mechanisms are not entirely known. Specifically, the mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 2 (mTORC2) is explored in this study, including its effect on signaling pathways and opportunities for deregulation. Previous studies on Dictyostelium have revealed Rictor and SIN1, mTORC2 components that are unique to this complex. Our hypothesis focuses on Rap1, a small GTPase, and its effect on mTORC2, including membrane localization and downstream AKT activation. Previous investigations indicate that Rap1 positively regulates mTORC2 activation, potentially through an interaction with SIN, which localizes to the plasma membrane. We hypothesize that SIN1 binding to Rap1 and both colocalizing to the plasma membrane will target and stabilize mTORC2 to the plasma membrane, where it can function to activate AKT. This paper sheds light on the involvement of mTORC2 in cell migration, given its downstream regulation of F-actin, suggesting its impact on cell motility and cancer progression. Through maintaining HEK-293 cells, and stimulation followed by immunofluorescence, we investigated the localization of these proteins. Our results show that Rap1 and Rictor colocalize at the plasma membrane when Rap1B is overexpressed or constitutively active, suggesting recruitment of mTORC and subsequent activation. Further, SIN1 and FLAG-Rap1B colocalize under conditions of Rap1B overexpression or constitutive activation, confirmed across various stimulation conditions (IGF-1 and EGF).
    • SMALL ITEM PHOTOGRAPHING TRIAGE ROBOT (SIPHTR)

      Head, Larry; Sreevatsan, Shriniketh (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      Small object sorting machines play a crucial role in various industries, from pharmaceuticals, where they sort pills, to agriculture, where they sort seeds. Our machine, the Small Item Photographing Triage Robot (SIPhTR), serves as a proof of concept for a small-scale sorting machine utilizing computer vision. SIPhTR is specifically designed to sort small objects like beads based on size, shape, color, and imprinted characters. It can handle up to 12 different variations (one at a time) with an accuracy of nearly 90% and operates at an average speed of 0.2 Hz (equivalent to sorting one bead every 5 seconds). SIPhTR achieves this through its three subsystems: the bead individualizer, computer vision, and bead sorter. The bead individualizer prepares the beads for imaging, allowing the computer vision subsystem to capture images of each bead individually, which are then processed using a machine learning algorithm for sorting. Finally, the bead sorter physically directs each bead into its designated bin. SIPhTR's high accuracy and speed demonstrate its potential as a scalable solution for small object sorting across industries such as pharmaceuticals, agriculture, and manufacturing.
    • OUR CHOICE, OUR VOICE: A COMPREHENSIVE ORAL HISTORY OF THE FEMALE EXPERIENCE OF REPRODUCTIVE HEALTHCARE AND LEGISLATION IN THE 21ST CENTURY

      Roth, Louise; Skyler, Lauren Ashley (The University of Arizona., 2024)
      This study investigates whether or not college-aged women personally feel affected by the Dobbs decision in their lives. The information for the study was gathered through an oral history format to give a holistic picture of these women's lives, while gathering testimonies on the shift in perspective many of them experienced as a result of the overturning of Roe v. Wade. Out of the 10 participants, 6 reported effects for themselves and 7 reported effects on other women or society as a whole due to these recent legal changes in abortion rights. These effects included decreased trust in lawmakers, lower overall safety, less willingness to seek reproductive healthcare, reduced optimism, increased fear about losing their rights, greater caution when sharing information and seeking care, and calls to action against the rulings. These effects arose not from their ideology but from their level of engagement in the national conversation, including their knowledge of the topic and willingness to seek out other's experiences of reproductive healthcare.