Now showing items 41-60 of 81929

    • Reportage from Blotetown: Yisroel-Yoysef Zevin (Tashrak) and the Shtetlization of New York City

      Ribak, Gil; Univ Arizona, Arizona Ctr Juda Studies (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-02)
      The neglected-but-popular Yiddish humorist Tashrak (penname of Yisroel-Yoysef Zevin) offers not just an opportunity to discover understudied aspects of the Jewish urban experience and modern Yiddish culture, but also allows us to tap into a less refined level of beliefs, behavior, judgments and attitudes of Yiddish-speaking Jews in America. Tashrak wittily conveyed to his readers a comforting image of the New World: New York City was just an enlarged shtetl, whose Jewish residents clashed over a host of issues, while encountering a number of stereotypical non-Jews. In his representation of internal Jewish divisions and disputes, relations with non-Jews, and the trials of modernity and assimilation, Tashrak followed, to some extent, the literary paths of earlier Yiddish and Hebrew writers. Yet critics often frowned upon his politics as either conservative or apolitical, and considered his literary style as lowbrow, thus they disregarded his work altogether, or referred to it as worthless.
    • Do I have to have a librarian come to my class? Power imbalances and power moves in library instruction

      Arteaga, Roberto; Moeller, Christine M. (The University of Arizona, 2020-09-08)
      The question, “Do I have to have a librarian come to my class,” may be familiar to academic teaching librarians. At first, this question may be frustrating in multiple ways, but a thorough examination of the context behind the question can help identify the root and the broader implications of such questions. These types of questions highlight the structures that impact library instruction and reveal the ways in which power imbalances affect the work and mission of teaching librarians. In this interactive presentation, attendees will engage in a series of activities and discussions centered around the structures and power imbalances that are deeply embedded within higher education. Participants will dissect, analyze, and interpret questions and situations familiar to teaching librarians in order to begin formulating pedagogically meaningful responses. Through this exploration, participants will be able to identify the root of power imbalances and determine ways to foster change.
    • Assessment Is Constructed and Contextual: A Faculty-Librarian Pilot to Explore Critical Approaches to Curriculum & Assessment

      Branch, Nicole; Pfeiffer, Loring; Voss, Julia; Santa Clara University (The University of Arizona, 2020-09-16)
      Students of color and marginalized-identifying students have more sophisticated critical information literacy skills across all dimensions compared to the comparison groups, reflecting greater cumulative awareness of: Journalistic/editorial best practices, Author expertise, Type of work (genre), Source research/evidence, Methods, Local sourcing, Diverse voices. Looking at specific dimensions of information literacy, Students of color and students who approach the research task as an opportunity to defend their own culture more frequently described the importance of including local voices in news reporting, compared to the comparison groups. Students of color and marginalized-identifying students more frequently critically evaluated the research/evidence of their sources than the comparison groups. Maginalized-identifying students more frequently considered authors' expertise when evaluating sources than mainstream-identifying students. Key Findings: 1. Students who self-identify as marginalized are better at critically assessing information than students who do not. Many approaches to assessment of student learning, even those that seek to operationalize critical approaches and an equity framework, persist in centering the deficiencies of marginalized students as a starting point, seeking to bring these learners “up” to what is perceived as “normative.” This finding reveals that marginalized students can also be the standard-bearers. 2. Interviews can be sites of meaning-making. Alternative assessment methods (in this case, interviews and grounded-theory methodologies) provide opportunities for educators and students to mutually engage in revealing assets of learners and meaning making that can help us (students and instructors) extend beyond/breakthrough academic conditioning. 3. Interviews offer opportunities for asset-based, anti-racist assessment. Alternative assessment methodologies may have particularly powerful implications for the development of learning outcomes that center the assets of students who are under-represented in the academy. The theme of “defending own culture” can be extrapolated to information literacy skills such as: Recognizing bias, Invoking one’s power as a producer of information, Countering stereotypical narratives.
    • Alleviating and exacerbating foods in hidradenitis suppurativa

      Fernandez, Jennifer M; Marr, Kendra D; Hendricks, Aleksi J; Price, Kyla N; Ludwig, Catherine M; Maarouf, Melody; Hsiao, Jennifer L; Shi, Vivian Y; Univ Arizona, Coll Med; Univ Arizona, Dept Med, Div Dermatol (WILEY, 2020-08-29)
      While dietary triggers have been investigated in acne and other inflammatory follicular dermatoses, there is a paucity of data on diet and hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). We sought to identify exacerbating and alleviating foods in HS patients. An anonymous survey was distributed via HS Facebook support groups and in person at HS specialty clinics. Participants were asked to select all that apply from a list to indicate foods that worsen and make HS better including sweet foods, breads and pasta, red meat, chicken, fish, canned foods, fruits, vegetables, dairy, high-fat foods, I do not know, and no. Only 12.0% (n = 89/744) identified alleviating foods while 32.6% (n = 237/728) identified HS-symptom-exacerbating foods. The most commonly reported exacerbating foods were sweets (67.9%), bread/pasta/rice (51.1%), dairy (50.6%), and high-fat foods (44.2%). The most commonly reported alleviating foods included vegetables (78.7%), fruit (56.2%), chicken (51.7%), and fish (42.7%). Further studies are required to evaluate the mechanistic links between diet and HS. HS patients may benefit from receiving dietary counseling as part of a comprehensive HS management plan.
    • Landscapes of appropriation and assimilation: the impact of immigrant-origin populations on U.S. cuisine

      Diaz, Christina J.; Ore, Peter D.; Univ Arizona, Sch Sociol (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-09)
      Although assimilation theories acknowledge that the host society adopts aspects of migrant culture, empirical work continues to focus on the assimilation trajectories of immigrants. This study represents the first effort to investigate, on a national level, whether Asians and Hispanics exert a cultural influence on local populations. We assess this possibility by using ethnic restaurants - both national chain and local establishments - as a test case. County-level data is pooled from the decennial U.S. Census, the American Community Survey, the Economic Research Service, the Voting and Elections Collection from CQ Press, and Reference U.S.A. to investigate the association of interest; Nielsen Marketing data is used to further supplement analyses. Results indicate that Asians and Hispanics may indeed influence local community expressions of culture - both in terms of restaurant availability and the extent to which those outside of the co-ethnic community engage in restaurant ownership. Moreover, we find compelling evidence that assimilation may be stronger in locations with advantaged majority populations. In combination, this manuscript offers innovative theoretical perspectives as well as preliminary evidence to suggest assimilation is indeed a multidirectional process.
    • Outcomes Associated With Infection of Chronic Pain Spinal Implantable Electronic Devices: Insights From a Nationwide Inpatient Sample Study

      Goel, Vasudha; Kumar, Varun; Agrawal, Shivani N; Patwardhan, Amol M; Ibrahim, Mohab; DeSimone, Daniel C; Sivanesan, Eellan; Banik, Ratan K; Shankar, Hariharan; Univ Arizona, Dept Anesthesiol (WILEY, 2020-09-14)
      Objectives Chronic pain spinal implantable electronic devices (CPSIEDs) include devices that provide spinal cord stimulation and intrathecal drug therapy. In this study, we sought to evaluate the trends of CPSIED infections, related complications, and outcomes following the treatment of infection. Materials and Methods The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database contains data from 48 states, and the District of Columbia was used to identify patients with a primary diagnosis of CPSIED infection during the years 2005-2014. Patients with intrathecal pumps for the treatment of spasticity were excluded to limit the study population to patients with chronic pain disorders. Treatments were categorized as: 1) without device removal, 2) pulse generator or pump only removal, 3) intrathecal pump system removal, and 4) spinal cord stimulation system removal. Complications associated with CPSIED infections were identified using administrative billing codes. Results During the study period 2005-2014, a total of 11,041 patients were admitted to the hospital with CPSIED infections. The majority of the patients were treated without surgical intervention (56%), and a smaller proportion underwent complete system explantation (22.7%). In-hospital mortality or permanent disability due to paralysis after CPSIED infection was around 1.83% and 2.77%, respectively. Infectious complications such as meningitis, abscess formation, and osteomyelitis occurred in 4.93%, 5.08%, and 1.5%, respectively. The median cost of hospitalization was around US $14,118.00, and the median length of stay was approximately six days (interquartile range = 4-13 days). Conclusions The complications of CPSIED infection were higher among patients that did not undergo device removal.
    • Neuroplasticity as a foundation for human enhancements in space

      Rappaport, Margaret Boone; Szocik, Konrad; Corbally, Christopher; Univ Arizona, Dept Astron, Vatican Observ Res Grp (Elsevier BV, 2020-10)
      The space medicine literature reports changes in neurological systems of astronauts after spaceflight, which has caused understandable concern. Rehabilitative medicine provides a preliminary context to address these changes and creative efforts in preflight training and post-flight remediation have resulted. Research can now begin to determine the neurological changes that are most and least debilitating, the most and least reversible, and which can be tolerated as an adaptation to space. It is not yet known which changes will require remediation with the help of human enhancements, or the type (genetic, pharmacological, prosthetic) when crew venture on long voyages to Mars, the asteroids, and outer planets. Absent from the discussion to date is the biological basis for neuroplastic changes in spaceflight-genetic, developmental, and evolutionary-especially insights from genomics experts and paleobiologists that suggest advantages. Humans are flexible, adaptive, and in many ways, well suited for space with the help of enhancements. Their neurological plasticity provides an almost unique foundation in the animal kingdom for genetic engineering, medication management, and remediation, so enhancements can be integrated naturally into human bodies, lives, and work. Here, the authors explore the nature of human neuroplasticity as a foundation for use of human enhancements.
    • Border cell counts of Bollgard3 cotton and extracellular DNA expression levels

      Knox, Oliver G. G.; Curlango-Rivera, Gilberto; Huskey, David A.; Hawes, Martha C.; Univ Arizona, Bio5 Inst, Dept Soil Water & Environm Sci (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2020-08-19)
      In a world where there is growing pressure to grow more with a smaller environmental footprint, alternative forms of plant protection are needed. The root tips of most plants produce border cells in a mucilage that also contains extracellular DNA (exDNA), which is known to be involved in plant defence. A decade after we first demonstrated that there was varietal difference in the number of border cells in Australian cotton cultivars, we enumerated current commercial cultivars and assessed the level of exDNA produced by individual root tips. The results exposed that there has been a change in the number of border cells per root tip, that cultivar variation still exists and that the recovered levels of exDNA also differs. However, there was no correlation between border cell number and disease resistance to two of the major wilt pathogens and the levels of exDNA did not change when a root tip suspension was incubated with spores of fungal pathogens. The results imply that, while there is potential for border cells and root tip properties to be incorporated into breeding programmes, we still need to develop a better understanding of how root tips are able to influence disease epidemiology if we are to capitalise on this phenotypic property.
    • Modern Ultra-Wideband Communications: Recent Overview and Future Prospects

      Gao, Xin; Huai, Lian; Univ Arizona, Dept Elect & Comp Engn (Inderscience, 2020-10)
      Regarding the modulation schemes and multiple access techniques, modern ultra-wideband (UWB) communication displays unique features in wideband, high-speed data transmission, low-power consumption and high security comparing to other wireless communication systems. We present a general review of historical development, key features and typical applications on UWB, then briefly discuss its recent progress in IEEE standards, application potentials for broadband wireless access and current benefits. Future development on UWB transmission schemes and challenges of system design, are concisely proposed in contrast to those of several other typical communication systems.
    • Identification of groundwater basin shape and boundary using hydraulic tomography

      Daranond, Kwankwai; Yeh, Tian-Chyi Jim; Hao, Yonghong; Wen, Jet-Chau; Wang, Wenke; Univ Arizona, Dept Hydrol & Atmospher Sci (Elsevier B.V., 2020-05-18)
      Shapes and boundary types of a groundwater basin play essential roles in the analysis of groundwater management and contaminant migration. Hydraulic tomography (HT), a recently developed new approach for high-resolution characterization of aquifers, is not only an inverse method but a logical strategy for collecting non-redundant hydraulic information. In this study, HT was applied to synthetic 2-D aquifers to investigate its feasibility to map the irregular shapes and types of the aquifer boundaries. We first used the forward model of VSAFT2 to simulate hydraulic responses due to HT surveys in the aquifer with irregular geometry and predetermined constant head conditions at some boundaries, and no-flow conditions at others. The SimSLE (Simultaneous Successive Linear Estimator) inverse model in VSAFT2 was then used to interpret the simulated HT data to estimate the spatial distribution of hydraulic properties of the aquifer using a domain with a wrong geometry surrounded by boundaries of a constant head condition. The inverse modeling experiment used steady-state and transient-states data from the HT forward simulations, and it used the same monitoring network as in the aquifer with irregular geometry to assess the ability of HT for detecting types and shapes of the boundary as well as heterogeneity in the aquifer. Results of the experiment show that no-flow boundaries, which were incorrectly treated as constant head boundaries in inverse models, were portrayed as low permeable zones of the aquifer near the boundaries. Overall, the results show that HT could delineate not only the irregular shape of the aquifer in general but also heterogeneity in the aquifer. Improvements of the estimation with prior information of transmissivity and storage coefficient was also investigated. The study shows that using homogeneous initial guess parameters resulted in a slightly better estimate than others. Moreover, this study employs Monte Carlo simulations to ensure statistically meaningful conclusions.
    • Faculty Senate Minutes September 14, 2020

      University of Arizona Faculty Senate (Tucson, AZ), 2020-09-14
    • SPBAC Minutes September 16, 2020

      University of Arizona Strategic Planning and Budget Advisory Committee (SPBAC) (The University of Arizona (Tucson, AZ), 2020-09-16)
    • Governmentalities, hydrosocial territories & recognition politics: The making of objects and subjects for climate change adaptation in Ecuador

      Mills-Novoa, Megan; Boelens, Rutgerd; Hoogesteger, Jaime; Vos, Jeroen; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog Dev & Environm (PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD, 2020-10)
      Adaptation to climate change has become a major policy and project focus for donors and governments globally. In this article, we provide insight into how adaptation projects mobilize distinct imaginaries and knowledge claims that create territories for intervention (the objects) as well as targeted populations (the subjects) to sustain them. Drawing on two emblematic climate change adaptation projects in Ecuador, we show how these objects and subjects are created through a knowledge production process that (a) creates a discursive climate change rationale; (b) sidesteps uncertainty related to climate change impacts; (c) fosters a circular citational practice that (self-)reinforces the project's expert knowledge; and (d) makes complex social variables commensurable based on the project's rationality, interests, and quantifiable indicators. The emerging hydrosocial territories 'in need of intervention' require subjects that inhabit, produce and reproduce these territories, in accordance with specific climate change discourses and practices. To manufacture and align these subjects, projects employ participatory practices that are informed by recognition politics aimed at disciplining participants toward particular identities and ways of thinking and acting. We analyze these distinct strategies as multiple governmentalities enacted through participatory adaptation projects seeking to produce specific climate change resilient hydrosocial territories and corresponding subjects.
    • Cultivating Crisis: Coffee, Smallholder Vulnerability, and the Uneven Sociomaterial Consequences of the Leaf Rust Epidemic in Jamaica

      Rhiney, Kevon; Knudson, Chris; Guido, Zack; Univ Arizona, Arizona Inst Resilience; Univ Arizona, Sch Nat Resources & Environm (Informa UK Limited, 2020-08-14)
      Since September 2012, the Jamaican coffee industry has been grappling with the coffee leaf rust (CLR) epidemic caused by the fungal pathogen Hemileia vastatrix. The first widespread outbreak affected more than one third of coffee plants across the island, resulting in millions of dollars in lost revenues for the sector. The emergence and spread of the disease have been linked to a confluence of factors ranging from changing climatic conditions to impacts from extreme weather events, improper farm management practices, and institutional and market constraints that restrict control measures. In this article, we use the case of the CLR epidemic to illustrate how its emergence and continued presence in the Jamaican Blue Mountains is inextricably tied to the wider political-economic and ecological conditions under which coffee production takes place and how H. vastatrix's complex pathogenesis makes the disease difficult to control. Drawing on an empirical study comprising household surveys, focus groups, archival research, and interviews, we demonstrate how smallholder farmers' ability to manage rust impacts was severely compromised by ecological pressures, resource constraints, bounded knowledge systems, and market and regulatory limitations.
    • Planning and Development Challenges in Western Gateway Communities

      Stoker, Philip; Rumore, Danya; Romaniello, Lindsey; Levine, Zacharia; Univ Arizona, Planning & Landscape Architecture (Informa UK Limited, 2020-08-27)
      Problem, research strategy, and findings Small towns and cities outside of national parks, scenic public lands, and other natural amenities throughout the western United States are becoming increasingly popular places to live and visit. As a result, many of these gateway communities appear to be experiencing a range of pressures and challenges. In this study we draw on the results of in-depth interviews with 33 public officials and a survey of more than 300 public officials to shed light on the planning and development concerns across western gateway communities. Our results indicate that gateway communities throughout the western United States are experiencing a range of planning and development challenges, many of which seem atypical for small rural communities, such as challenges associated with housing affordability, cost of living, and congestion. These challenges seem to be more related to population growth than increasing tourism and stand out in stark contrast against the fact that these communities strongly value and identify with their small-town character. Our findings suggest gateway communities are doing a variety of things, some quite innovative, to address their planning and development challenges but often feel overwhelmed, behind the curve, and in need of additional capacity and planning support. Takeaway for practice Our study highlights the importance of effective and proactive planning in gateway communities. It also suggests that to do forward-looking planning and to respond to the challenges they face, many gateway communities will need additional planning support and tools. We highlight gateway communities here to provide a platform for future efforts aimed at assisting these small, rural communities in protecting the qualities that make them such special places to live and visit amid the planning and development pressures and challenges they face.
    • Flood-fragility analysis of instream bridges – consideration of flow hydraulics, geotechnical uncertainties, and variable scour depth

      Ahamed, Touhid; Duan, Jennifer G.; Jo, Hongki; Univ Arizona, Dept Civil & Architectural Engn & Mech (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-08)
      Floods, bridge scour, and flood-associated loads have caused over sixty percent of bridge failures in the U.S. Current practices for the vulnerability assessment of instream bridges under the effect of such flood largely rely on qualitative methods, such as visual inspection, without considering uncertainties associated with structural behaviors and flood loads. Recently, numerical methods have been investigated to quantitatively consider such uncertainty effects by adapting fragility analysis concept that has been well established in the earthquake engineering area. However, river hydraulics, geotechnical uncertainties of foundation, variable scour-depth effects, and their significance in structural fragility of bridges have rarely been systematically investigated. This study proposes a comprehensive fragility analysis framework that can effectively incorporate both flow hydraulics and geotechnical uncertainties, in addition to commonly considered components in flood-fragility analysis of bridges. The significance of flow hydraulics and geotechnical uncertainties has been demonstrated through a real-bridge case study. Conventional fragility curves with maximum scour depth may not represent actual vulnerability during floods, as the scour may not reach to the maximum in many cases. Therefore, fragility surface with two intensity measures, i.e. flow discharges and scour depths, is introduced for real-time vulnerability assessment during floods in this study.
    • Defining the Relationship: An Examination of Sexual Behaviors and Relational Contexts across Tween, Teen, and Young Adult U.S. Television

      Dajches, Leah; Aubrey, Jennifer Stevens; Univ Arizona, Dept Commun (Informa UK Limited, 2020-08-25)
      Although content analytic research has examined casual sexual scripts in television programming, less is known about how the relational context of sexual behaviors is depicted by age. Using a sample of U.S. tween, teen, and young-adult television programs from 2016, we analyzed how relational status varies by type of sexual behavior and presumed age of the target audience. Results show sexual intercourse behaviors are most frequently depicted within the context of a hookup or casual sex interaction, whereas precursory sexual behaviors (flirting, kissing, and touching) are more commonly portrayed in committed relationships. Findings further suggest tween shows exclusively depicted sexual behaviors in the context of committed relationships, hookups are just as frequent in teen shows as they are in young-adult shows, and casual sex relationships are more likely to occur in young-adult shows than in teen shows.
    • 21 years of research for the twenty-first century: revisiting the journal of environmental policy and planning

      Ellis, Geraint; Gerlak, Andrea K.; Daugbjerg, Carsten; Feindt, Peter H.; Metze, Tamara; Wu, Xun; Univ Arizona, Sch Geog Dev & Environm (Informa UK Limited, 2020-09-10)
    • COVID-19 and Avoiding Ibuprofen. How Good Is the Evidence?

      Kutti Sridharan, Gurusaravanan; Kotagiri, Rajesh; Chandiramani, Vijay H; Mohan, Babu P; Vegunta, Rathnamitreyee; Vegunta, Radhakrishna; Rokkam, Venkata R P; Univ Arizona, Banner Univ Med Ctr, Dept Internal Med (LIPPINCOTT WILLIAMS & WILKINS, 2020-07)
      Ibuprofen is an over-the-counter medication that is used widely for the treatment of pain and fever during COVID-19 pandemic. A concern was raised regarding the safety of ibuprofen use because of its role in increasing ACE2 levels within the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system. ACE2 is the coreceptor for the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into cells, and so, a potential increased risk of contracting COVID-19 disease and/or worsening of COVID-19 infection was feared with ibuprofen use. However, available data from limited studies show administration of recombinant ACE2 improves lung damage caused by respiratory viruses, suggesting ibuprofen use may be beneficial in COVID-19 disease. At this time, there is no supporting evidence to discourage the use of ibuprofen.
    • Optimal Defense Theory in an ant–plant mutualism: Extrafloral nectar as an induced defence is maximized in the most valuable plant structures

      Calixto, Eduardo Soares; Lange, Denise; Bronstein, Judith; Torezan‐Silingardi, Helena Maura; Del‐Claro, Kleber; Univ Arizona, Dept Ecol & Evolutionary Biol (WILEY, 2020-08-03)
      Plants allocate defences in order to decrease costs and maximize benefits against herbivores. The Optimal Defense Theory (ODT) predicts that continuously expressed (i.e. constitutive) defences are expected in structures of high value, whereas defences that are expressed or that increase their expression only after damage or upon risk of damage (i.e. induced defences) are expected in structures of low value. Although there are several studies evaluating ODT predictions, few studies have successfully tested them as a way of measuring ecological investment in extrafloral nectary (EFN)-mediated ant-plant interactions. Here we compared extrafloral nectar production and ant attractiveness to EFNs located on vegetative versus reproductive plant structures onQualea multifloraplants subjected to different levels of simulated herbivory. We then addressed the following predictions emerging from the ODT: (a) extrafloral nectar produced in inflorescence EFNs will have higher volumes and calories and will attract more ants than extrafloral nectar produced in leaf EFNs; (b) extrafloral nectar production (volume and calories) and ant attendance will increase after simulated herbivory in leaf EFNs but not in inflorescence EFNs; (c) higher simulated leaf herbivory will induce higher extrafloral nectar production in EFNs on leaves and (d) more attractive extrafloral nectar (higher volume and calories) will attract more ants. Extrafloral nectar volume and calorie content, as well as ant abundance, were higher in EFNs of inflorescences compared to EFNs of leaves both before and after simulated herbivory, consistent with one of our predictions. However, EFNs on both leaves and inflorescences, not on leaves only, were induced by simulated herbivory, a pattern opposite to our prediction. Plants subjected to higher levels of leaf damage produced more and higher calorie extrafloral nectar, but showed similar ant abundance. Finally, more attractive extrafloral nectar attracted more ants. Synthesis. Our results show that extrafloral nectar production before and after simulated herbivory, as well as ant recruitment, varies according to the plant structure on which EFNs are located. Our study is the first to show that ant recruitment via extrafloral nectar follows predictions from Optimal Defense Theory, and that the ant foraging patterns may be shaped by the plant part attacked and the level of damage it receives.