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- The UA Libraries is celebrating International GIS Day on November 14th with a morning workshop and afternoon talks. Learn more at http://libguides.library.arizona.edu/GIS/gisday2018
- The Critical Librarianship & Pedagogy Symposium (CLAPS) is happening November 15-16th at The University of Arizona. Proceedings from the 2016 symposium are available in the repository.
- Presentations from October 31st's research data program are now available:
- Celebrate Open Access Week with these University of Arizona events:
- The Arizona Geological Survey (AZGS) Document Repository is now available in the UA Campus Repository. UA Libraries personnel collaborated with AZGS to add historical and current publications to the repository, for immediate public availability and long-term preservation. Content includes geologic maps, reports, bulletins, and other publications.
- More than 200 honors theses from Spring 2018 graduates are now available in the repository. Theses represent research activities from multiple disciplines across campus.
- Tree-Ring Research Volumes 68, 69 and 70 (2012-2014) are now available in the repository.
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Imaging-based clusters in current smokers of the COPD cohort associate with clinical characteristics: the SubPopulations and Intermediate Outcome Measures in COPD Study (SPIROMICS)(BMC, 2018-09-18)Background: Classification of COPD is usually based on the severity of airflow, which may not sensitively differentiate subpopulations. Using a multiscale imaging-based cluster analysis (MICA), we aim to identify subpopulations for current smokers with COPD. Methods: Among the SPIROMICS subjects, we analyzed computed tomography images at total lung capacity (TLC) and residual volume (RV) of 284 current smokers. Functional variables were derived from registration of TLC and RV images, e.g. functional small airways disease (fSAD%). Structural variables were assessed at TLC images, e.g. emphysema and airway wall thickness and diameter. We employed an unsupervised method for clustering. Results: Four clusters were identified. Cluster 1 had relatively normal airway structures; Cluster 2 had an increase of fSAD% and wall thickness; Cluster 3 exhibited a further increase of fSAD% but a decrease of wall thickness and airway diameter; Cluster 4 had a significant increase of fSAD% and emphysema. Clinically, Cluster 1 showed normal FEV1/FVC and low exacerbations. Cluster 4 showed relatively low FEV1/FVC and high exacerbations. While Cluster 2 and Cluster 3 showed similar exacerbations, Cluster 2 had the highest BMI among all clusters. Conclusions: Association of imaging-based clusters with existing clinical metrics suggests the sensitivity of MICA in differentiating subpopulations.
Higher levels of trait emotional awareness are associated with more efficient global information integration throughout the brain: a graph-theoretic analysis of resting state functional connectivity(OXFORD UNIV PRESS, 2018-07)Previous studies have suggested that trait differences in emotional awareness (tEA) are clinically relevant, and associated with differences in neural structure/function. While multiple leading theories suggest that conscious awareness requires widespread information integration across the brain, no study has yet tested the hypothesis that higher tEA corresponds to more efficient brain-wide information exchange. Twenty-six healthy volunteers (13 females) underwent a resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging scan, and completed the Levels of Emotional Awareness Scale (LEAS; a measure of tEA) and the Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI-II; a measure of general intelligence quotient [IQ]). Using a whole-brain (functionally defined) region of interest (ROI) atlas, we computed several graph theory metrics to assess the efficiency of brain-wide information exchange. After statistically controlling for differences in age, gender and IQ we first observed a significant relationship between higher LEAS scores and greater average degree (i.e. overall whole-brain network density). When controlling for average degree, we found that higher LEAS scores were also associated with shorter average path lengths across the collective network of all included ROIs. These results jointly suggest that individuals with higher tEA display more efficient global information exchange throughout the brain. This is consistent with the idea that conscious awareness requires global accessibility of represented information.
ER-associated ubiquitin ligase HRD1 programs liver metabolism by targeting multiple metabolic enzymes(NATURE PUBLISHING GROUP, 2018-09-10)The HMG-CoA reductase degradation protein 1 (HRD1) has been identified as a key enzyme for endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation of misfolded proteins, but its organ-specific physiological functions remain largely undefined. Here we show that mice with HRD1 deletion specifically in the liver display increased energy expenditure and are resistant to HFD-induced obesity and liver steatosis and insulin resistance. Proteomic analysis identifies a HRD1 interactome, a large portion of which includes metabolic regulators. Loss of HRD1 results in elevated ENTPD5, CPT2, RMND1, and HSD17B4 protein levels and a consequent hyperactivation of both AMPK and AKT pathways. Genome-wide mRNA sequencing revealed that HRD1-deficiency reprograms liver metabolic gene expression profiles, including suppressing genes involved in glycogenesis and lipogenesis and upregulating genes involved in glycolysis and fatty acid oxidation. We propose HRD1 as a liver metabolic regulator and a potential drug target for obesity, fatty liver disease, and insulin resistance associated with the metabolic syndrome.
Employing Bessel-Gaussian Beams to Improve Physical-Layer Security in Free-Space Optical Communications(IEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 2018-09)Physical-layer security in free-space optical communications channels can be compromised when an eavesdropper performs optical beam-splitting attacks over an atmospheric channel. Previous simulations have shown that Laguerre-Gaussian orbital angular momentum-carrying beams can provide higher secrecy capacities compared to that of ordinary Gaussian beams. In this paper, we determine if Bessel-Gaussian beams can provide further improvement over their corresponding Laguerre-Gaussian counterparts. Using computer simulations and experiments with spatial light modulators, an increase in secrecy capacity of 10 to 30 bits/sec/Hz in the weak to medium turbulence regimes is demonstrated. This verifies that Bessel-Gaussian beams have more resiliency to atmospheric turbulence effects than Laguerre-Gaussian beams. Furthermore, research on optimizing the quality of these beams can help to realize a practical system for more secure communications.
Diverse Protoplanetary Disk Morphology Produced by a Jupiter-mass Planet(IOP PUBLISHING LTD, 2018-09-10)Combining hydrodynamic planet-disk interaction simulations with dust evolution models, we show that protoplanetary disks with a giant planet can reveal diverse morphology in (sub)millimeter continuum, including a full disk without significant radial structure, a transition disk with an inner cavity, a disk with a single gap and a central continuum peak, and a disk with multiple rings and gaps. Such diversity originates from (1) the level of viscous transport in the disk, which determines the number of gaps a planet can open; (2) the size and spatial distributions of grains determined by the coagulation, fragmentation, and radial drift, which in turn affects the emissivity of the disk at (sub)millimeter wavelengths; and (3) the angular resolution used to observe the disk. In particular, our results show that disks with the same underlying gas distribution can have very different grain size/spatial distributions and thus appearance in continuum, depending on the interplay among coagulation, fragmentation, and radial drift. This suggests that proper treatments for the grain growth have to be included in models of protoplanetary disks concerning continuum properties and that complementary molecular line observations are highly desired in addition to continuum observations to reveal the true nature of disks. The fact that a single planet can produce diverse disk morphology emphasizes the need to search for more direct, localized signatures of planets in order to confirm (or dispute) the planetary origin of observed ringed substructures.